WAP Tutorial

Dicuss WAP

Dicuss WAP &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-13 20:54:05 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

Dicuss WAP


WAP is an international standard establishing how mobile devices can access information on the Internet. It is a widely used set of protocols used on wireless devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. This tutorial helps you in understanding WAP technology starting from its basics.


WAP &-8211; Home

WAP &-8211; Introduction

WAP &-8211; Key Features

WAP &-8211; The Model

WAP &-8211; Architecture

WAP &-8211; Environment

WAP &-8211; WML Syntax

WAP &-8211; WML Script

WAP &-8211; Core Services

WAP &-8211; Key Benefits

WAP &-8211; Modern Devices

WAP &-8211; Future Prospects

WAP &-8211; Summary

WAP &-8211; Quick Guide

WAP &-8211; Useful Resources

WAP &-8211; Useful Acronyms

WAP &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who

WAP – Useful Acronyms

WAP &-8211; Useful Acronyms &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-13 20:54:04 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

WAP &-8211; Useful Acronyms


The following is a compiled list of mobile terms and acronyms taken from a GSM Association supported publication.



The first generation of analogue mobile phone technologies including AMPS, TACS and NMT


The second generation of digital mobile phone technologies including GSM, CDMA IS-95 and D-AMPS IS-136


The enhancement of GSM which includes technologies such as GPRS


The third generation of mobile phone technologies covered by the ITU IMT-2000 family


The 3rd Generation Partnership Project, a grouping of international standards bodies, operators and vendors with the responsibility of standardising the WCDMA-based members of the IMT-2000 family


The counterpart of 3GPP with responsibility for standardising the CDMA2000-based members of the IMT-2000 family. 3GPP2 is spearheaded by ANSI


Octantal Phase Shift Keying

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Encryption algorithms for GSM networks


ATM Adaptation Layer


Available Bit Rate


Interface between the BSC and BTS in a GSM network


Access Burst, used for random access and characterised by a longer guard period to allow for burst transmission from an MS that does not know the correct timing advance when first contacting a network


Approvals Committee for Terminal Equipment


Advanced Communications Technologies and Services; an European technology initiative


Antenna Combining Unit


Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation; a form of voice compression that typically uses 32kbit/s


Automatic Frequency Control


Access Grant Channel; downlink only, BTS allocates a TCH or SDCCH to the MS, allowing it access to the network

Air interface

In a mobile phone network, the radio transmission path between the base station and the mobile terminal


Interface between the MSC and BSS in a GSM network


Amplitude Modulation


Advanced Mobile Phone System, the analogue mobile phone technology used in North and South America and in around 35 other countries. Operates in the 800MHz band using FDMA technology


Adaptive Multi-Rate codec. Developed in 1999 for use in GSM networks, the AMR
has been adopted by 3GPP for 3G


The representation of information by a continuously variable physical quantity such as voltage


American National Standards Institute. An non-profit making US organisation, which does not carry out standardisation work but reviews the work of standards bodies and assigns them category codes and numbers




Application Program Interface


Advice of Charge


Association of Radio Industries and Businesses. An organisation established by Japan&-8217;s Ministry of Posts and Communications to act as the standardisation authority for radio communication and broadcasting


Average Revenue Per User


American Standard Code for Information Interchange


Application Specific Integrated Circuit


Application Service Provider

Asymmetric Transmission

Data transmissions where the traffic from the network to the subscriber is at a higher rate than the traffic from the subscriber to the network


Advanced Time Division Multiple Access


Asynchronous Transfer Mode; a multiplexed information transfer and switching method in which the data is organised into fixed length 53-octet cells and transmitted according to each applications instantaneous need


Authentication Centre; the element within a GSM network which generates the parameters for subscriber authentication

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A term meaning both the width of a transmission channel in terms of Hertz and the maximum transmission speed in bits per second that it will support


Broadcast Channels; carry only downlink information and are mainly responsible for synchronisation and frequency correction (BCCH, FCCH and SCH)


Broadcast Control Channel; the logical channel used in cellular networks to broadcast signalling and control information to all mobile phones within the network


Broadband Code Division Multiple Access


Broadband ISDN


Bit Error Rate; the percentage of received bits in error compared to the total number of bits received


Bit Error Rate Test


A bit is the smallest unit of information technology. As bits are made up using the binary number system, all multiples of bits must be powers of two i.e. a kilobit is actually 1024 bits and a megabit 1048576 bits. Transmission speeds are given in bits per second (bit/s)


A low power short range wireless technology designed to provide a replacement for the serial cable. Operating in the 2.4GHz ISM band, Bluetooth can connect a wide range of personal, professional and domestic devices such as laptop, computers and mobile phones together wirelessly.


Busy Hour Call Attempts; the number of call attempts made during a network&-8217;s busiest hour of the day


Base Station Controller; the network entity controlling a number of Base Transceiver Stations


Base Station System/Subsystem


Base Transceiver Station; the network entity which communicates with the mobile station

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Common Air Interface; a standard developed for the UK&-8217;s public CT2 networks, which enabled the same handset to be used on different networks


Customised Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic; an IN feature in GSM networks that enables users to carry personal services with them when roaming into other networks that support CAMEL


CAMEL Service Environment


A measure of a cellular network&-8217;s ability to support simultaneous calls


Cell Broadcast


Call Control; manages call connections


Customer Care and Billing


Common Control Channels; a group of uplink and downlink channels between the MS and the BTS (see PCH, AGCH and RACH)


Common Channel Signalling No. 7


Code Division Multiple Access also known as spread spectrum. CDMA cellular systems utilise a single frequency band for all traffic, differentiating the individual transmissions by assigning them unique codes before transmission. There are a number of variants of CDMA (see W-CDMA, B-CDMA, TD-SCDMA et al)


The first commercial CDMA cellular system; deployed in North America and Korea, also known as IS-95


A member of the IMT-2000 3G family; backwardly compatible with cdmaOne


The first generation of cdma2000; the standardisation process indicated that there would be CDMA 2X and CDMA 3X but this no longer appears likely


A variant of CDMA 1X which delivers data only


Cellular Digital Packet Data; a packet switched data service largely deployed in the USA. The service uses idle analogue channels to carry the packetised information.


Coherent Differential Phase Shift Keying


Call Detail Records; the record made within the cellular network of all details of both incoming and outgoing calls made by subscribers, The CDR is passed to the billing system for action


The area covered by a cellular base station. A cell site may sectorise its antennas to service several cells from one locationCell site
The facility housing the transmitters/receivers, the antennas and associated equipment

Cell splitting

The process of converting a single cell to multiple cells by sectorising the antennas in the cell site, or constructing additional cells within a cell site


Code Excited Linear Prediction; an analogue to digital voice coding scheme, there are a number of variants used in cellular systems


Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications. A organisation of national posts, telegraphs and telephone administrations. Until 1988, when this work was take over by ETSI, the main European body for telecommunications standardisation. CEPT established the original GSM standardisation group


Call Forwarding


Carrier to Interference ratio


Cellular Intercarrier Billing Exchange Roamer Record


Caller Identification

Circuit switching

A method used in telecommunications where a temporary dedicated circuit of constant bandwidth is established between two distant endpoints in a network. Mainly used for voice traffic; the opposite of packet switching


Calling Line Identification


Calling Line Identification Presentation


Calling Line Identification Restriction


Connection Management; is used to set up, maintain and take down call connections


Complementary Metal Oxide Substrate


A word formed by combining coder and decoder, the codec is a device, which encodes and decodes signals. The voice codec in a cellular network converts voice signals into and back from bit strings. In GSM networks, in addition to the standard voice codec, it is possible to implement Half Rate (HR) codecs and Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) codecs

Control signal

A signal sent to a cellular phone from a base station or vice versa, which carries information essential to the call, but not including the audio portion of a conversation


Customer Premises Equipment; all the equipment on the end user&-8217;s side of the network interface


Central Processing Unit


Cyclic Redundancy Check


Customer Relationship Management


Customer Support System


Cordless Telephony


Zero generation cordless telephony; the earliest domestic cordless phones, which used analogue technology and, which had severe limitations in terms of range and security


First generation cordless telephony; Improved analogue phones with greater range and security; a number of European nations produced CT1 standards


Second generation cordless telephony; Using digital technology CT2 phones offered greater range, improved security and a wide range of new functionalities. Used in both domestic and cordless PABX deployments, CT2 was standardised as an interim ETS but was overwhelmed by DECT


Second generation cordless telephony-common air interface


Cordless Terminal Adaptor; a DECT term


Cordless Terminal Mobility


Common Technical Regulation; part of the ETSI standardisation process


Closed User Group

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Digital to Analogue conversion


Digital to Analogue Convertor


Demand Assigned Multiple Access


Digital AMPS; a US wireless standard also known as IS-136


DECT Access Node


Dynamic Channel Assignment


Dedicated Control Channels; responsible for roaming, handovers, encryption etc. (See SDCCH, SACCH and FACCH)


Data Communications Equipment


Data Clearing House


Differentially Coherent Phase Shift Keying


Digital Cellular System at 1800MHz, now known as GSM1800


Digitally Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications system; a second generation digital cordless technology standardised by ETSI


Differential Encoded Phase Shift Keying


Digital Encryption Standard


Double Frequency Shift Keying


a method of representing information as numbers with discrete values; usually expressed as a sequence of bits


Differential Pulse Code Modulation


Digital Phase Shift Keying


Digital Quadrature Phase Shift Keying


Direct Sequence CDMA


Digital Signal Processing


Digital Short Range Radio; a UK standard for a low power, short range radio system designed for small voice and data networks


Data Terminal Equipment


Dual Tone MultiFrequency; better know as Touch Tone. The tones generated by touching the keys on the phone are used for a variety of purposes including voice mail systems and voice messaging


Discontinuous Transmission

Dual Band

The capability of GSM infrastructure elements and handsets to work across both the 900MHz and 1800MHz bands. The capability to seamlessly handover between the two bands offers operators major capacity gains


Dummy Burst; transmitted as a filler in unused timeslots of the carrier


The wireless technique where one frequency band is used for traffic from the network to the subscriber (the downlink) and another, widely separated band is used for traffic from the subscriber to the network (the uplink)

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Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution; effectively the final stage in the evolution of the GSM standard, EDGE uses a new modulation schema to enable theoretical data speeds of up to 384kbit/s within the existing GSM spectrum. An alternative upgrade path towards 3G services for operators, such as those in the USA, without access to new spectrum. Also known as Enhanced GPRS (E-GPRS)


Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory


Enhanced Full Rate; a alternative voice codec that provides improved voice quality in a GSM network (see codec)


Electronic Funds Transfer


Extended (frequency range) GSM


Equipment Identity Register; a database that contains a list of all valid mobile stations within a network based on their IMEI


Effective Isotropic Radiated Power


The mobile phone operating system developed by Symbian. Derived from epoch-the beginning of an era-EPOC is a 32-bit operating environment, which comprises a suite of applications, customisable user interfaces, connectivity options and a range of development tools


Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory


A dimensionless unit of average traffic density in a telecommunications network


Enhanced Radio Messaging System; a paging technology developed by ETSI, which was intended to allow users to roam throughout Europe. Adopted by a number of European and Middle Eastern countries, ERMES, like paging in general was overtaken by the ubiquity of GSM


European Radiocommunications Office


Effective Radiated Power


Enhanced Special Mobile Radio; a US PMR variant (see SMR)


Electronic Serial Number; a 32-bit number that uniquely identifies a mobile phone


European Strategic Programme for Research and Development in Information Technology


Extended TACS; the extension of TACS by the addition of new frequencies


European Telecommunications Standards Institute: The European group responsible for defining telecommunications standards

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Fast Associated Control Channel; similar to the SDCCH, but used in parallel for operation of the TCH. If the data rate of the SACCH is insufficient, borrowing mode is used


Frequency Correction Burst; used for frequency synchronisation of the mobile


Federal Communications Commission; the US regulatory body for telecommunications


Frequency Correction Channel; downlink only, correction of MS frequencies, transmission of frequency standard to MS etc.


Frequency Division Duplex; a radio technique which uses paired spectrum; UMTS has an FDD element


Frequency Division Multiple Access-a transmission technique where the assigned frequency band for a network is divided into sub-bands, which are allocated to a subscriber for the duration of their calls


Forward Error Correction


Frequency Hopping


Frequency Hopping CDMA


Fixed Mobile Convergence


Fixed Mobile Integration


Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System; the original title of the ITU&-8217;s third generation concept now known as IMT-2000


Fixed Radio Access; see WLL


Filtered Symmetric Differential Phase Shift Keying


Frequency Shift Keying; a method of using frequency modulation to send digital information


Frequency Shift Offset Quadrature Modulation


Fixed Satellite ServiceGb
The interface between the PCU and the SGSN in a GSM/GPRS network

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The interface between the GGSN and the HLR in a GSM/GPRS network


The interface between the SGSN and the SMSC in a GSM/GPRS network


The interface between the SGSN and the EIR in a GSM/GPRS network


The interface between the GGSN and the Internet in a GPRS network


The interface between the GGSN and the SGSN in a GPRS network


The interfaces between the GGSN/SGSN and the Border Gateway in a GPRS network


The interface between the SGSN and the HLR in a GPRS network


The interface between the SGSN and the MSC in a GSM/GPRS network


GSM/ANSI 136 Interoperability Committee


Generic Access Profile; a DECT term


A unit of data transmission rate equal to one billion bits per second


Gateway Mobile Services Switching Centre; the gateway between two networks


Global Certification Forum


Refers to a satellite in equatorial orbit above the earth, which appears from the surface to be stationary


GSM-EDGE Radio Access Network; the name for the evolution of GSM towards 3G based on EDGE


GSM Global Roaming Forum


Gateway GPRS Support Node; the gateway between a cellular network and a IP network.


A unit of frequency equal to one billion Hertz per second


Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite


Gaussian filtered Minimum Shift Keying; a refinement of FSK which minimises adjacent channel interference


General Packet Radio Service; standardised as part of GSM Phase 2+, GPRS represents the first implementation of packet switching within GSM, which is a circuit switched technology. GPRS offers theoretical data speeds of up to 115kbit/s using multislot techniques. GPRS is an essential precursor for 3G as it introduces the packet switched core required for UMTS


Global Positioning System; a location system based on a constellation of US Department of Defence satellites. Depending on the number of satellites visible to the user can provide accuracies down to tens of metres. Now being incorporated as a key feature in an increasing number of handsets


GPRS Roaming Exchange


Global System for Mobile communications, the second generation digital technology originally developed for Europe but which now has in excess of 71 per cent of the world market. Initially developed for operation in the 900MHz band and subsequently modified for the 850, 1800 and 1900MHz bands. GSM originally stood for Groupe Speciale Mobile, the CEPT committee which began the GSM standardisation process


The GSM Memorandum of Understanding, an agreement signed between all the major European operators to work together to promote GSM. The precursor of the GSM Association


GSM-Railway, A variant of GSM designed to meet the special communications needs of international train operators

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The transfer of control of a cellular phone call in progress from one cell to another, without any discontinuity


The operation of a cellular phone without using the handset; usually installed in vehicles.


Hierarchical Cell Structure; the architecture of a multi-layered cellular network where subscribers are handed over from the macro to the micro to the pico layer depending on the current network capacity and the needs of the subscriber


High level Data Link Control


High Performance Radio Local Access Network; a wireless local area network being standardised by ETSI (Also HIPERLAN2)


Home Location Register; the database within a GSM network which stores all the subscriber data. An important element in the roaming process


High Speed Circuit Switched Data; a special mode in GSM networks which provides higher data throughput By concatenating a number of timeslots, each delivering 14.4kbit/s, much higher data speeds can be achieved


High Speed Packet Switched DataIub

The interface between the Node B and the RNC in a UMTS network

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The interface between RNCs in a UMTS network


The connection between the RNC and the packet switched network in a GSM/GPRS/UMTS network


The connection between the RNC and the circuit switched network in a GSM/GPRS/UMTS network


Interim European Telecommunications Standard


A service developed by Japanese operator NTT DoCoMo, I-mode delivers a huge range of services to subscribers and has proved enormously popular with some 30 million regular users. The revenue sharing model used for I-mode is being adopted by other operators as the basis for the new services enabled by GPRS and 3G


International Mobile Equipment Identity


International Mobile Subscriber Identity; an internal subscriber identity used only by the network


The family of third generation technologies approved by the ITU. There are five members of the family: IMT-DS, a direct sequence WCDMA FDD solution IMT-TC, a WCDMA TDD solution IMT-MC, a multicarrier solution developed from cdma2000 IMT-SC, a single carrier solution developed from IS-136/UWC-136 IMT-FT, a TDMA/TDD solution derived from DECT


Intelligent Network


Intelligent Network Application Part


A loose confederation of autonomous databases and networks. Originally developed for academic use the Internet is now a global structure of millions of sites accessible by anyone


A private network which utilises the same techniques as the Internet but is accessible only by authorised users


Internet Protocol


Intellectual Property Rights


The next generation of IP addressing designed to replace the current system IPv4 which uses a 32 bit address code which limits the number of possible addresses. IPv6 uses a 128 bit code ensuring that the possible number of IP addresses will be virtually limitless


Infra red Data Association


A low earth orbit satellite communications system developed initially by Motorola.


The first evolution in the USA from analogue to digital technology. Used a hybrid of analogue and digital technology, superseded by IS-136


Cellular standard know also as cdmaOne


Cellular standard also known as TDMA or D-AMPS


Integrated Services Digital Network


International Standards Organisation


Internet Service Provider


International Telecommunications Union


ITU Telecommunications Radio Sector


ITU Telecommunications Standardisation Sector


Interworking Function

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A programming language developed by Sun Microsystems Java is characterised by the fact that programs written in Java do not rely on an operating system


Joint Photographic Experts Group

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Local Area Network


Local Area Network Services


Link Access Protocol


Low Earth Orbit; refers to satellites which orbit the Earth at around 1,000 kilometres


Land Mobile Satellite Service


Line of Sight

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Media Access Control; the lower sublayer of the OSI system


Metropolitan Area Network


Mobile Application Part


Megabit: a unit of data transmission speed equal to one million bits per second


Megahertz; a unit of frequency equal to one million Hertz


Multi Carrier Power Amplifier


Mobile Execution Environment; likely to be based on Java, MeXe enables WAP-enabled devices to offer a wider range of features with greater security and flexibility, as well as greater control of telephony features


Multiple Frequency Shift Keying


Man Machine Interface


Multimedia Messaging Service; an evolution of SMS, MMS goes beyond text messaging offering various kinds of multimedia content including images, audio and video clips


Modified Minimum Shift Keying


Mobile Network Operator


The process of imposing an information signal on a carrier. This can be done by changing the amplitude (AM), the frequency (FM) or the phase, or any combination of these


Memorandum of Understanding-

see GSM MoU


Motion Picture Experts Group; MPEG4 is a technology for compressing voice and video so that the information can be transmitted over normally difficult links such as mobile radio


Mobile Station


Mobile Switching Centre; the switching centre of a mobile phone network, the MSC has interfaces to the BSCs, HLR, VLR and other MSCs


Mobile Station International ISDN Number


Minimum Shift Keying; Another term for FFSK


A telecommunications technique where several channels can be combined to share the same transmission medium. The most common forms are Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)


Mobile Virtual Private Network

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Narrowband AMPS


Normal Burst; used to carry traffic and control channels except RACH


Norme Europeenne de Telecommunications


Nordic Mobile Telephone system; an analogue cellular technology deployed in the Nordic countries in the late 1970&-8217;s; variations were also deployed in the Benelux countries and in Russia. NMT operated in the 450 and 900MHz bands and was the first technology to offer international roaming, albeit only in the Nordic countries

Node B

The element in a UMTS network which interfaces with the mobile station, analogous to a BTS in a GSM network

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Over the air activation (of services and tariff changes)


Operations and Maintenance


Operations and Maintenance Centre


The radio OMC


The switching OMC


Open Systems Interconnection; a seven layer model for protocols defined by ISO

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Personal Access Communication System; a digital cordless technology developed initially by Bell Labs in the US, PACS was designed to compete with DECT

Packet switching

A communication system wherein the information is transmitted in packets of a set size. These packets have address headers and find their way to their destination by the most efficient route through the network. Compared to circuit switching where a connection is occupied until the traffic exchange is completed, packet switching offers considerable efficiencies as connections can be used by a number of users simultaneously


Public Access Mobile Radio; Commercial service using trunking techniques in which multiple groups of users can set up their own closed systems within a shared public network


Public Access Profile; a DECT term


Paging Channel; downlink only, the MS is informed of incoming calls by the BTS via the PCH


Pulse Code Modulation; the standard digital voice format at 64kbit/s


Personal Computer Memory Card Interface Association the body responsible for defining the standards and formats for memory expansion cards for laptop computers and PDAs. Now extended to cover cards for mobile phones


Personal Communications Network; a designation initially used in the UK to refer to networks operating in the 1800MHz band (see also DCS1800). No longer in use

PCS 1900

Personal Communications Systems 1900MHz; the terminology used in the US to describe the new digital networks being deployed in the 1900MHz band; rarely used today


Packet Control Unit; an element in a GPRS/UMTS network


Personal Digital Assistant


Personal Digital Communications; a digital cellular technology developed and deployed uniquely in Japan. A TDMA technology, PDC is incompatible with any other digital cellular standard


Pan European Digital Communications; A designation occasionally used in the early 1990&-8217;s to describe GSM. No longer in use


The percentage of the total population which owns a mobile phone


Personal HandyPhone System/Phone; a digital cordless technology developed in Japan which achieved great success. Deployed by NTT DoCoMo and other Japanese operators PHS offered two-way communications, data services and Internet access and eventually won some 28 million customers. Now in decline as cellular&-8217;s wide area capabilities offer better service


Personal Identifier Number


Public Key Infrastructure


Public Land Mobile Network; any cellular operator&-8217;s network


Private Mobile Radiocommunications; two-way radio technology widely used for despatch and delivery services, taxi companies and the like. See TETRA


Post Office Code Standardisation Group; a now defunct industry grouping which standardised pager addressing systems


Points of Presence; a method of measuring the value of a cellular licence; the approximate number of potential customers within a geographical area


Plain Old Telephone Service


Programmable Read Only Memory


Phase Shift Keying


Public Safety Radio Communications Project; an initiative by the UK Government to standardise all emergency services communications on to a single digital technology (see TETRA)


Public Switched Data Network


Public Switched Packet Data Network


Public Switched Telephone Network


Power Supply Unit


Public Telecommunication Operator


Posts, Telephone and Telegraph Administration


Push-to-Talk; a feature of PMR systems


Personal Wireless Telecommunications; a variant of DECT developed for use in the USA

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Quadrature Amplitude Modulation


Quadrature Amplitude Phase Shift Keying


Quadrature Code Excited Linear Prediction


Quality of Service; a broad term to describe the performance attributes of an end-to-end connection


Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

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Research in Advanced Communications in Europe


Random Access Channel; uplink only, allows the MS to request an SDCCH in response to a page or for a call


Random Access Memory


Radio Fixed Part; equivalent to a base station in a DECT system


Radio Common Carrier


Regular pulse Excitation Linear Prediction coding


The assignment of frequencies or channels to cells so that adjoining cells do not use the same frequencies and cause interference whereas more distant cells can use the same frequencies. Reuse expands the capacity of a cellular network by enabling the use of the same channels throughout the network


Radio Part


Radio Network Controller; the element which controls the Node Bs within a UMTS network. It is roughly analogous to a BSC in a GSM network


A service unique to GSM which enables a subscriber to make and receive calls when outside the service area of his home network e.g. when travelling abroad


A device which forwards information in a network on a connectionless basis


Radio Resource Management, part of the UMTS infrastructure


Remote Terminal

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Slow Associated Control Channel; transmits continuous measurements in parallel with operation of TCH or SDCCH; needed for handover decisions


Specific Absorption Rate


Synchronisation Burst; used for time synchronisation of the mobile


Synchronous CDMA (see CDMA)


Synchronisation Channel; downlink only frame synchronisation and identification of base station


Switching/Service Control Point


Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel; communications channel between the MS and the BTS. Used for signalling during call set-up before a TCH is allocated


Synchronous Data Link Control


Spatial Division Multiple Access


Serving GPRS Support Node; the gateway between the RNC and the core network in a GPRS/UMTS network


Subscriber Identity Module; A smart card containing the telephone number of the subscriber, encoded network identification details, the PIN and other user data such as the phone book. A user&-8217;s SIM card can be moved from phone to phone as it contains all the key information required to activate the phone


Small Office/Home Office


An Internet derived expression for the one-way transmission of video and audio content


SIM ToolKit: specified within the GSM standard, this allows operators to add additional functions to the phone menu in order to provide new services such as mobile banking or email


Specialised Mobile Radio; the US term for private mobile radio (See PMR)


Short Message Service; a text message service which enables users to send short messages (160 characters) to other users. A very popular service, particularly amongst young people, with 400 billion SMS messages sent worldwide in 2002


SMS Centre-the network entity which switches SMS traffic


SMS Cell Broadcast


SMS Mobile Originated


SMS Mobile Terminated


SMS Point to Point


Service Provider


Staggered Quadrature Amplitude Modulation


Staggered Quadrature Phase Shift Keying


Supplementary Service Support; handles special services


Signalling System Number 7 (See CCS7)


Service Switching Point


Synchronous Transfer Mode


A company created by Psion, Nokia, Ericsson and Motorola in 1998 with the aim of developing and standardising an operating system which enable mobile phones from different manufacturers to exchange information

The operating system is known as EPOC. Matsushita has subsequently joined Symbian

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Total Access Communications System (an AMPS variant deployed in a number of countries principally the UK)


Transferred Account Procedure; the essential charging methodology for international GSM roaming. There have been four TAP standards, TAP1, TAP2, TAP2+ and TAP3. The latter offers variable record length and is sufficiently flexible to support all future requirements arising from the move to 3G


Technical Basis for Regulation (part of the ETSI standardisation process)


Traffic Channel


Time Division CDMA


Time Division-Synchronous CDMA; a CDMA variant developed by Chinese vendors which is claimed to offer high data rates and greater coverage


Time Division Duplex; a radio technology for use in unpaired spectrum. WCDMA/UMTS includes a band for TDD mode usage and both PHS and DECT use this technology


Time Division Multiple Access; a technique for multiplexing multiple users onto a single channel on a single carrier by splitting the carrier into time slots and allocating these on a as-needed basis


A wireless communications system designed for the collection and dissemination of information, particularly refers to vehicle-based electronic systems, vehicle tracking and positioning, on-line vehicle navigation and information systems and emergency assistance


Terrestrial Trunked Radio; a European developed digital private mobile radio technology which is now being extensively deployed worldwide


A competitive digital PMR technology to TETRA developed by French vendors


Terrestrial Flight Telephone System


A frame within a TDMA schema; has a time interval of 576 microseconds. Physical content of a timeslot is known as a burst. Five different burst types exist, they are distinguished by different TDMA frame divisions (see NB, FB, SB, AB and DB)


Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonisation over Networks; an ETSI project designed to support the market for voice communications and voice band communications. In particular TIPHON will ensure that users on IP-based networks can communicate with those on circuit switched networks


Telecommunications Management Network


Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity; covers the IMSI to prevent over-the-air interception and tracing


Transcoder Rate Adapter Unit; the transport unit for a 16kbit/s traffic channel on the A-bis interface


Refers to a mobile phone able to operate on the three internationally designated GSM frequencies- 900, 1800 and 1900MHz


A technology which enables the optimal synchronisation of calendars, address books, action lists and memoranda. It enables multi-point, one-step synchronisation of wireless and wireline devices, desktop computers and server-based applications and services


Transmitter/receiver (transceiver)

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User Interface


The air interface between the BTS and the MS in a GSM network


The air interface between the Node B and the MS in a UMTS network.


Universal Mobile Telecommunications System; the European entrant for 3G; now subsumed into the IMT-2000 family as the WCDMA technology.


Universal Personal Number


Universal Personal Telecommunications


Uniform Resource Locator; the addressing system of the Internet


Universal Service Obligation


Universal Terrestrial Radio Access; the air interface component of WCDMA.


Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network; the UMTS radio access network comprising the RNC, Node B and the air interface


Universal Subscriber Identity Module; the 3G equivalent of the GSM SIM


Ultra Wide Band

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Value Added Services


Variable Bit Rate


Virtual Home Environment


Visitor Location Register


Voice coder


Voice over Internet Protocol


Virtual Private Network


Very Small Aperture Terminal


Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction

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Wireless Application Protocol; a de facto standard for enabling mobile phones to access the Internet and advanced services. Users can access websites and pages which have been converted by the use of WML into stripped-down versions of the original more suitable for the limited display capabilities of mobile phones


World Administration Radio Conference; an ITU conference held at regular intervals to determine the allocation of spectrum for various services


Wideband CDMA; the technology created from a fusion of proposals to act as the European entrant for the ITU IMT-2000 family


Wireless Local Loop; a technique for providing telephony and low speed data services to fixed customers using wireless. Regarded as having considerably potential for rapidly addressing the telecommunications gap in developing countries. A number of different WLL solutions have been marketed based on cellular and cordless technologies


Wireless Local Area Network; a short range radio network normally deployed in traffic hotspots such as airport lounges, hotels and restaurants. WLAN enables suitably equipped users to access the fixed network wirelessly, providing high speed access (up to 11Mbit/s download) to distant servers. The key WLAN technologies are the IEEE802.11 family and ETSI HIPERLAN/2


Wireless Markup Language; a markup language developed specifically for wireless applications. WML is based on XML


Weighted Quadrature Amplitude Modulation


World Wide Web

Back to top


eXtended Markup Language

The Consumer Mobile Glossary

Advice of charge

A service which provides the user with information on the cost of calls from a mobile phone


The amount of time a subscriber spends using his/her mobile phone

Battery status/Battery charge display

An indication of the amount of battery life remaining


A chargeable device which provides the mobile phone with power. A variety of battery technologies have been used for mobile phones including nickel cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium ion (Li-ion)

Call barring

A service which enables users to bar certain incoming or outgoing calls on their mobile phones

Call timer

A service which keeps track of the amount of airtime being used by the subscriber on a cumulative basis

Call divert

The capability to divert incoming calls to another phone (fixed or mobile) or to an answering service

Call hold

The ability to put an ongoing call on hold whilst answering or making a second call

Caller ID

Caller Identification; displays the name/number of the person calling a mobile phone. Also known as CLI


See Caller ID


Clear; the key on a cellular phone which is pressed to remove information from the display

Data capable

Mobile phones which have the capability to enable transmission of data from a laptop computer or PDA via the phone

Dual band

Mobile phones which support transmission and reception of calls on the 900MHz and 1800MHz bands with seamless handover between the two frequency bands


Enhanced Full Rate (codec); an improved version of the standard voice codec used in GSM phones; offers improved speech quality without impacting on network capacity


The key on a cellular phone which is pressed to terminate a call

Infrared data port

A facility on a mobile phone to allow information to be exchanged with other devices e.g. a PC using infra red technology


A function on a cellular phone which, when activated, prevents use of the phone until the user enters a security code

No Service

An indication on the display of a cellular phone that indicates that the user is in an area where cellular service is unavailable

One-touch dialling

The ability to dial frequently called numbers using a single key stroke; see Speed Dialling


Personal Communications Networks; an outdated term for GSM services in the 1800MHz band


br />

Personal Digital Assistant; a sophisticated handheld device with advanced display facilities and a range of business-oriented software programs

Phone book

A list of personal names and numbers stored in a mobile phone&-8217;s internal memory or in the SIM card. These numbers can be called by accessing the appropriate memory and making a single key stroke


Personal Identity Number; a number, usually four digits, that must be keyed into a mobile phone to make it work. A security measure to prevent unauthorised usage


The function on a cellular phone which recalls a phone number from memory


The ability to make and receive calls on the same mobile phone when travelling outside the area of the home network operator


a combination of mobile phone and personal digital assistant


Send; The key on a cellular phone which initiates a call or answers an incoming call

Speed dialling

See One-touch dialling

Standby time

The length of time a battery can power a mobile phone when it is switched on but not making or receiving calls


The length of time a battery can power a mobile phone when making or receiving calls


A service offered by network operators whereby calls received when the mobile is in use, switched off or out of coverage can be diverted to an answering service which can be personalised by the user


Wireless Application Protocol; a standard whereby mobile phones can gain access to specially tailored Internet websites


Wireless Markup Language; a specially designed markup language used for tailoring WAP content. WML enables optimum usage of the limited display capabilities of the mobile phone 

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WAP &-8211; Home

WAP &-8211; Introduction

WAP &-8211; Key Features

WAP &-8211; The Model

WAP &-8211; Architecture

WAP &-8211; Environment

WAP &-8211; WML Syntax

WAP &-8211; WML Script

WAP &-8211; Core Services

WAP &-8211; Key Benefits

WAP &-8211; Modern Devices

WAP &-8211; Future Prospects

WAP &-8211; Summary

WAP &-8211; Quick Guide

WAP &-8211; Useful Resources

WAP &-8211; Useful Acronyms

WAP &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who

WAP – Useful Resources

WAP &-8211; Useful Resources &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-13 20:54:01 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

WAP &-8211; Useful Resources


The following resources contain additional information on Wap. Please use them to get more in-depth knowledge on this topic.

Useful Links on WAP

Useful Books on WAP

  • WAP: A Beginner's Guide
  • WAP 2.0 Development
  • WAP, Bluetooth, and 3G Programming: Cracking the Code
  • WAP Integration: Professional Developer's Guide
  • WAP and WML: Designing Usable Mobile Sites
  • Professional WAP

To enlist your site on this page, please drop an email to [email protected]


WAP &-8211; Home

WAP &-8211; Introduction

WAP &-8211; Key Features

WAP &-8211; The Model

WAP &-8211; Architecture

WAP &-8211; Environment

WAP &-8211; WML Syntax

WAP &-8211; WML Script

WAP &-8211; Core Services

WAP &-8211; Key Benefits

WAP &-8211; Modern Devices

WAP &-8211; Future Prospects

WAP &-8211; Summary

WAP &-8211; Quick Guide

WAP &-8211; Useful Resources

WAP &-8211; Useful Acronyms

WAP &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who

WAP – Quick Guide

WAP &-8211; Quick Guide &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-13 20:53:59 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

WAP &-8211; Quick Guide


WAP &-8211; Introduction

[WAP is] the de facto worldwide standard for providing Internet communications and advanced telephony services on digital mobile phones, pagers, personal digital assistants, and other wireless terminals − WAP Forum.

WAP stands for Wireless Application Protocol. The dictionary definition of these terms are as follows −

  • Wireless − Lacking or not requiring a wire or wires pertaining to radio transmission.

  • Application − A computer program or piece of computer software that is designed to do a specific task.

  • Protocol − A set of technical rules about how information should be transmitted and received using computers.

WAP is the set of rules governing the transmission and reception of data by computer applications on or via wireless devices like mobile phones. WAP allows wireless devices to view specifically designed pages from the Internet using only plain text and very simple black-and-white pictures.

WAP is a standardized technology for cross-platform, distributed computing very similar to the Internet&-8217;s combination of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), except that it is optimized for:

  • low-display capability

  • low-memory

  • low-bandwidth devices, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), wireless phones, and pagers.

WAP is designed to scale across a broad range of wireless networks like GSM, IS-95, IS-136, and PDC.

Who is behind WAP?

The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a result of joint efforts taken by companies teaming up in an industry group called WAP Forum (www.wapforum.org).

On June 26, 1997, Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and Unwired Planet took the initiative to start a rapid creation of a standard for making advanced services within the wireless domain a reality. In December 1997, WAP Forum was formally created and after the release of the WAP 1.0 specifications in April 1998, WAP Forum membership was opened to all.

The WAP Forum now has over 500 members and represents over 95 percent of the global handset market. Companies such as Nokia, Motorola and Ericsson are all members of the forum.

The objective of the forum is to create a license-free standard that brings information and telephony services to wireless devices.

Why is WAP Important?

Until the first WAP devices emerged, the Internet was a Internet and a mobile phone was a mobile phone. You could surf the Net, do serious research, or be entertained on the Internet using your computer, but this was limited to your computer.

Now with the appearance of WAP, the scene is that we have the massive information, communication, and data resources of the Internet becoming more easily available to anyone with a mobile phone or communications device.

WAP being open and secure, is well suited for many different applications including, but not limited to stock market information, weather forecasts, enterprise data, and games.

Despite the common misconception, developing WAP applications requires only a few modifications to existing web applications. The current set of web application development tools will easily support WAP development, and in the future more development tools will be

WAP Microbrowser

To browse a standard internet site you need a web browser. Similar way to browse a WAP enables website, you would need a micro browser. A Micro Browser is a small piece of software that makes minimal demands on hardware, memory and CPU. It can display information written in a restricted mark-up language called WML. Although, tiny in memory footprint it supports many features and is even scriptable.

Today, all the WAP enabled mobile phones or PDAs are equipped with these micro browsers so that you can take full advantage of WAP technology.

WAP &-8211; Key Features

Here, in this chapter, we have listed a few key features offered by WAP −

A programming model similar to the Internet&-8217;s

Though WAP is a new technology, but it reuse the concepts found on the Internet. This reuse enables a quick introduction of WAP-based services, since both service developers and manufacturers are familiar with these concepts today.

Wireless Markup Language (WML)

You must be using HTML language to develop your web-based application. Same way, WML is a markup language used for authoring WAP services, fulfilling the same purpose as HTML does on the Web. In contrast to HTML, WML is designed to fit small handheld devices.


Once again, you must be using Java Script or VB script to enhance the functionality of your web applications. Same way, WMLScript can be used to enhance the functionality of a service, just as Java script can be utilized in HTML. It makes it possible to add procedural logic and computational functions to WAPbased services.

Wireless Telephony Application Interface (WTAI)

The WTAI is an application framework for telephony services. WTAI user agents are able to make calls and edit the phone book by calling special WMLScript functions or by accessing special URLs. If one writes WML decks containing names of people and their phone numbers, you may add them to your phone book or call them right away just by clicking the appropriate hyperlink on the screen.

Optimized protocol stack

The protocols used in WAP are based on well-known Internet protocols, such as HTTP and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), but they have been optimized to address the constraints of a wireless environment, such as low bandwidth and high latency.

WAP &-8211; The Model

Before we describe WAP model, first we would like you to understand how Standard Internet works.

The Internet Model

The Internet model makes it possible for a client to reach services on a large number of origin servers, each addressed by a unique Uniform Resource Locator (URL).

The content stored on the servers is of various formats, but HTML is the predominant. HTML provides the content developer with a means to describe the appearance of a service in a flat document structure. If more advanced features like procedural logic are needed, then scripting languages such as JavaScript or VB Script may be utilised.

The figure below shows how a WWW client request a resource stored on a web server. On the Internet standard communication protocols, like HTTP and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are used.

The Internet Model

The content available at the web server may be static or dynamic. Static content is produced once and not changed or updated very often; for example, a company presentation. Dynamic content is needed when the information provided by the service changes more often; for example, timetables, news, stock quotes, and account information. Technologies such as Active Server Pages (ASP), Common Gateway Interface
(CGI), and Servlets allow content to be generated dynamically.

The WAP Model

The figure below shows the WAP programming model. Note, the similarities with the Internet model. Without the WAP Gateway/Proxy, the two models would have been practically identical.

The WAP Model

WAP Gateway/Proxy is the entity that connects the wireless domain with the Internet. You should make a note that the request that is sent from the wireless client to the WAP Gateway/Proxy uses the Wireless Session Protocol (WSP). In its essence, WSP is a binary version of HTTP.

A markup language − the Wireless Markup Language (WML) has been adapted to develop optimized WAP applications. In order to save valuable bandwidth in the wireless network, WML can be encoded into a compact binary format. Encoding WML is one of the tasks performed by the WAP Gateway/Proxy.

How WAP Model Works?

When it comes to actual use, WAP works as follows −

  • The user selects an option on their mobile device that has a URL with Wireless Markup language (WML) content assigned to it.

  • The phone sends the URL request via the phone network to a WAP gateway using the binary encoded WAP protocol.

  • The gateway translates this WAP request into a conventional HTTP request for the specified URL and sends it on to the Internet.

  • The appropriate Web server picks up the HTTP request.

  • The server processes the request just as it would any other request. If the URL refers to a static WML file, the server delivers it. If a CGI script is requested, it is processed and the content returned as usual.

  • The Web server adds the HTTP header to the WML content and returns it to the gateway.

  • The WAP gateway compiles the WML into binary form.

  • The gateway then sends the WML response back to the phone.

  • The phone receives the WML via the WAP protocol.

  • The micro-browser processes the WML and displays the content on the screen.

How WAP Model Works

WAP &-8211; Architecture

WAP is designed in a layered fashion, so that it can be extensible, flexible, and scalable. As a result, the WAP protocol stack is divided into five layers −

Layers of WAP Protocol

Application Layer

Wireless Application Environment (WAE). This layer is of most interest to content developers because it contains among other things, device specifications, and the content development programming languages, WML, and WMLScript.

Session Layer

Wireless Session Protocol (WSP). Unlike HTTP, WSP has been designed by the WAP Forum to provide fast connection suspension and reconnection.

Transaction Layer

Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP). The WTP runs on top of a datagram service, such as User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and is part of the standard suite of TCP/IP protocols used to provide a simplified protocol suitable for low bandwidth wireless stations.

Security Layer

Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS). WTLS incorporates security features that are based upon the established Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol standard. It includes data integrity checks, privacy, service denial, and authentication services.

Transport Layer

Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP). The WDP allows WAP to be bearer-independent by adapting the transport layer of the underlying bearer. The WDP presents a consistent data format to the higher layers of the WAP protocol stack, thereby offering the advantage of bearer independence to application developers.

Each of these layers provides a well-defined interface to the layer above it. This means that the internal workings of any layer are transparent or invisible to the layers above it. The layered architecture allows other applications and services to utilise the features provided by the WAP-stack as well. This makes it possible to use the WAP-stack for services and applications that currently are not specified by WAP.

The WAP protocol architecture is shown below alongside a typical Internet Protocol stack.

The WAP Architecture

Note that the mobile network bearers in the lower part of the figure above are not part of the WAP protocol stack.

WAP &-8211; Environment

Wireless Application Environment (WAE), the uppermost layer in the WAP stack, provides
an environment that enables a wide range of applications to be used on the wireless devices. We have earlier discussed about the WAP WAE programming model. In this chapter, we will focus on the various components of WAE.

Components of WAE

Addressing Model

A syntax suitable for naming resources stored on servers. WAP use the same addressing model as the one used on the Internet that is Uniform Resource Locators (URL).

Wireless Markup Language (WML)

A lightweight markup language designed to meet the constraints of a wireless environment with low bandwidth and small handheld devices. The Wireless Markup Language is WAP&-8217;s analogy to HTML used on the WWW. WML is based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML).


A lightweight scripting language. WMLScript is based on ECMAScript, the same scripting language that JavaScript is based on. It can be used for enhancing services written in WML in the way that it to some extent adds intelligence to the services; for example, procedural logic, loops, conditional expressions, and computational functions.

Wireless Telephony Application (WTA, WTAI)

A framework and programming interface for telephony services. The Wireless Telephony Application (WTA) environment provides a means to create telephony services using WAP.

Hardware and Software Requirement

At minimum developing WAP applications requires a web server and a WAP simulator. Using simulator software while developing a WAP application is convenient as all the required software can be installed on the development PC.

Although, software simulators are good in their own right, no WAP application should go into production without testing it with actual hardware. The following list gives a quick overview of the necessary hardware and software to test and develop WAP applications −

  • A web server with connection to the Internet

  • A WML to develop WAP application

  • A WAP simulator to test WAP application

  • A WAP gateway

  • A WAP phone for final testing.

Microsoft IIS or Apache on Windows or Linux can be used as the web server and Nokia WAP Toolkit version 2.0 as the WinWAP simulator.

Please have look at WAP &-8211; Useful Resources to find out all the above components.

Configure Web Server for WAP

In the WAP architecture, the web server communicates with the WAP gateway, accepting HTTP requests and returning WML code to the gateway. The HTTP protocol mandates that each reply must include something called a Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) type.

In normal web applications, this MIME type is set to text/l, designating normal HTML code. Images on the other hand could be specified as image/gif or image/jpeg for instance. With this content type specification, the web browser knows the data type that the web server returns.

In WAP applications a new set of MIME types must be used, as shown in the following table −

File type MIME type
WML (.wml) text/vnd.wap.wml
WMLScript (.wmls) text/vmd.wap.wmlscript
WBMP (.wbmp) image/vnd.wap.wbmp

In dynamic applications, the MIME type must be set on the fly, whereas in static WAP applications, the web server must be configured appropriately.

For more information about configuring MIME types for your web server, please consult your web server documentation.

WAP &-8211; WML Syntax

The topmost layer in the WAP architecture is made up of WAE (Wireless Application Environment), which consists of WML and WML scripting language.

WML scripting language is used to design applications that are sent over wireless devices such as mobile phones. This language takes care of the small screen and the low bandwidth of transmission. WML is an application of XML, which is defined in a document-type definition.

WML pages are called decks. They are constructed as a set of cards, related to each other with links. When a WML page is accessed from a mobile phone, all the cards in the page are downloaded from the WAP server to mobile phone showing the content.

WML commands and syntaxes are used to show content and to navigate between the cards. Developers can use these commands to declare variables, format text, and show images on the mobile phone.

WAP Program Structure

A WML program is typically divided into two parts − the document prolog and the body. Consider the following code −

?xml version="1.0"?>

   ...more cards...

The first line of this text says that this is an XML document and the version is 1.0. The second line selects the document type and gives the URL of the document type definition (DTD). This DTD gives the full XML definition of WML. The DTD referenced is defined in WAP 1.1, but this header changes with the versions of the WML. The header must be copied exactly so that the tool kits automatically generate this prolog.

The body is enclosed within a wml>&-8230;/wml> tag pair as shown above. The body of a WML document can consist of one or more of the following −

  • Deck

  • Card

  • Content to be shown

  • Navigation instructions

WML Commands

The commands used in WML are summarized as follows −


Command Description
p> Paragraph
b> Bold
big> Large
em> Emphasized
I> Italicized
small> Small
strong> Strongly Emphasized
u> Underlined
br> Line Break

Inserting Images

img src="image-path/image - name" alt="Picture not available" />

Using Tables

Command Description
table> Definition of a table
tr> Defining a row
td> Defining a column
Thead> Table header


Declared as −

setvar name="x" value="xyz"/>

Used as −

$ identifier or
$ (identifier) or
$ (Identifier; conversion)


Command Description
select> Define single or multiple list
input> Input from user
option> Defines an option in a selectable list
fieldset> Defines a set of input fields
optgroup> Defines an option group in a selectable list

Task Elements

Command Description
go> Represents the action of switching to a new card
noop> Says that nothing should be done
prev> Represents the action of going back to the previous card
refresh> Refreshes some specified card variables.


The various events are as follows −

Command Description
do> Defines a do event handler
onevent> Defines an onevent event handler
postfield> Defines a postfield event handler
ontimer> Defines an ontimer event handler
onenterforward> Defines an onenterforward handler
onenterbackward> Defines an onenterbackward handler
onpick> Defines an onpick event handler

Sample WML Program

Keep the following WML code into info.wml on your server. If your server is WAP enabled then you can access this page using any WAP device.

?xml version="1.0"?>
!-- WML prolog.declaration of file type and version>

!-- Declaration of the WML deck>
card id="info" newcontext="true">
!-- declaration of a card in deck>
p align="center">b>Information Center/b>/p>
!--paragraph declaration to display heading>
!--paragraph declaration to display links>
a href="Movie.wml">1. Movies info./a>
a href="Weather.wml">2. Weather Info./a>
!--declaration of links for weather and movies>
!-- card end>
!-- program end>

WAP &-8211; WML Script

WMLScript (Wireless Markup Language Script) is the client-side scripting language of WML (Wireless Markup Language). A scripting language is similar to a programming language, but is of lighter weight. With WMLScript, the wireless device can do some of the processing and computation. This reduces the number of requests and responses to/from the server.

This chapter will give brief description of all the important WML Script components.

WML Script Components

WML Script is very similar to Java Script. WML Script components have almost similar meaning as they have in Java Script. The WML Script program components are summarized here.

WML Script Operators

WML Script supports following type of operators.

  • Arithmetic Operators

  • Comparison Operators

  • Logical (or Relational) Operators

  • Assignment Operators

  • Conditional (or ternary) Operators

Check for complete detail of The WML Operators.

WML Script Control Statements

Control statements are used for controlling the sequence and iterations in a program.

Statement Description
if-else Conditional branching
for Making self-incremented fixed iteration loop
while Making variable iteration loop
break Terminates a loop
continue Quit the current iteration of a loop

Check for complete detail of WML Script Control Statements.

WML Script Functions

The user-defined functions are declared in a separate file having the extension .wmls. Functions are declared as follows −

function name (parameters) {   
   control statements;
   return var;

The functions used are stored in a separate file with the extension .wmls. The functions are called as the filename followed by a hash, followed by the function name −


WML Scripts Standard Libraries

The are six standard libraries totally. Here is an overview of them −

  • Lang − The Lang library provides functions related to the WMLScript language core.

    Example Function − abs(),abort(), characterSet(),float(), isFloat(), isInt(), max(), isMax(), min(), minInt(), maxInt(), parseFloat(), parseInt(), random(), seed()

  • Float − The Float library contains functions that help us perform floating-point arithmetic operations.

    Example Function − sqrt(), round(), pow(), ceil(), floor(), int(), maxFloat(), minFloat()

  • String − The String library provides a number of functions that help us manipulate strings.

    Example Function − length(), charAt(), find(), replace(), trim(), compare(), format(), isEmpty(), squeeze(), toString(), elementAt(), elements(), insertAt(), removeAt(), replaceAt()

  • URL − The URL library contains functions that help us manipulate URLs.

    Example Function − getPath(), getReferer(), getHost(), getBase(), escapeString(), isValid(), loadString(), resolve(), unescapeString(), getFragment()

  • WMLBrowser − The WMLBrowser library provides a group of functions to control the WML browser or to get information from it.

    Example Function − go(), prev(), next(), getCurrentCard(), refresh(), getVar(), setVar()

  • Dialogs − The Dialogs library Contains the user interface functions.

    Example Function − prompt(), confirm(), alert()

WML Scripts Comments

There are two types of comments in WMLScript −

  • Single-line comment − To add a single-line comment, begin a line of text with the // characters.

  • Multi-line comment − To add a multi-line comment, enclose the text within /* and */.

These rules are the same in WMLScript, JavaScript, Java, and C++. The WMLScript engine will ignore all comments. The following WMLScript example demonstrates the use of comments −

// This is a single-line comment.

/* This is a multi-line comment. */

/* A multi-line comment can be placed on a single line. */

WML Script Case Sensitivity

The WMLScript language is case-sensitive. For example, a WMLScript function with the name WMLScript Function is different from wmlscript function. So, be careful of the capitalization when defining or referring to a function or a variable in WMLScript.

Whitespaces in WMLScript

Except in string literals, WMLScript ignores extra whitespaces like spaces, tabs, and

WML Script Statement Termination by Semicolons

A semicolon is required to end a statement in WMLScript. This is the same as C++ and Java. Note that JavaScript does not have such requirement but WML Script makes it mandatory.

WAP &-8211; Core Services

A vast majority of WAP services are available in the market. You may contact to some WAP lover to have a big list of all the available services and then you can start accessing those services from your WAP enabled mobile phone.

However, some examples of useful mobile services are in the following fields −


  • Accessing account statements.

  • Paying bills.

  • Transferring money between accounts.


  • Retrieving stock and share prices.

  • Buying and selling stocks and shares.

  • Looking up interest rates.

  • Looking up currency exchange rates.


  • Buying everyday commodities.

  • Browsing and buying books.

  • Buying CDs.


  • Booking or buying airline tickets.

  • Buying concert tickets.

  • Booking theatre tickets.


  • Retrieving restaurant details.

  • Looking up clubs.

  • Finding out what is playing in what cinemas.

  • Playing solitaire games.

  • Playing interactive games.


  • Retrieving local weather forecasts.

  • Looking up weather at other locations.

E- Messaging

  • Voice mail.

  • Unified Messaging.

  • Enhanced support of legacy SMS services.

Live WAP Examples

Following are some of the examples of WAP applications −

  • 123Jump (http://www.123jump.com) A selection of stock data and news, all via WAP.

  • 1477.com (http://1477.com) WAP/Web development services.

  • 2PL World-Wide Hotel Guide (http://wap.2pl.com) A worldwide hotel guide accessible in multiple languages via a WAP-enabled device.

  • AEGEE-Eindhoven (http://wappy.to/aegee/) A Europe-wide students association, whose goal is to allow all students to integrate and learn about each others cultures.

  • Ajaxo (http://www.ajaxo.com) A WAP service for Wireless Stock Trading from any WAP-enabled device.

  • Aktiesidan (http://mmm.aktiesidan.com/servlets/aktiesidan/) A Swedish stock-market monitoring service, all WAP-enabled.

  • Amazon.com Bookshop (http://www.amazon.com/phone/) Amazon.com has launched this WAP portal (HDML-based) for browsing books.

  • Traffic Maps (http://www.webraska.com/) A French service that monitors and shows the latest in traffic news via maps.

WAP &-8211; Key Benefits

The following sections outline how various groups may gain from WAP −


It is crucial that the subscribers benefit from using WAP based services. The key benefits
can be summarized as −

  • Portability

  • Easy to use

  • Access to a wide variety of services on a competitive market

  • The possibility of having personalised services

  • Fast, convenient, and efficient access to services

  • To fulfil as many customers needs as possible, WAP devices will be available in various form factors, e.g. pagers, handheld PCs, and phones


Many of the advantages mentioned under &-8220;Service Providers&-8221; are be applicable to operators as well. The operator&-8217;s benefits may include −

  • Address new market segments of mobile users by enabling a wider range of mobile VAS.

  • Deploy telephony services that in contrast to traditional telephony services are easy to create, update, and personalise

  • Use the flexibility of WAP as a tool to differentiate from competitors

  • Attractive interface to services will increase usage

  • Increased revenues per user due to higher network utilisation

  • Convenient service creation and maintenance including short time-to-market

  • Replace expensive customer care centres with WAP based services (E-care)

  • WAP services are designed to be independent of the network, implying that an operator who runs different types of networks only have to develop its services ones

  • An open standard means that equipment will be provided by many manufacturers

Service Providers

WAP opens new possibilities for service and content providers since they not necessarily
have to come to an agreement with a specific operator about providing services to their customers. For example, the gains are −

  • Create a service once, make it accessible on a broad range of wireless networks

  • Address new market segments by launching innovative mobile VAS. Keep old customers by adapting existing Internet services to WAP

  • Keep old customers by adapting existing Internet services to WAP

  • Convenient service creation and maintenance

  • Creating a WAP service is no harder than creating an Internet service today since WML and WMLScript are based on well-known Internet technology

  • Use standard tools like ASP or CGI to generate content dynamically

  • Utilise existing investments in databases, etc that are the basis of existing Internet services


Mobile devices supporting WAP will be available in many different form factors, e.g.,
cellular phones, pagers, and handheld PCs. Hardware manufacturers will also need to supply operators with equipment such as WAP Gateway/Proxys and WTA servers. Manufacturers benefit in the following ways −

  • WAP scales across a broad range of mobile networks, meaning that WAP implementations can be used in devices supporting different types of networks.

  • The expected wide adoption of WAP implies that economies of scales can be achieved, meaning that the huge mass-market can be addressed

  • The fact that WAP is designed to consume minimal amount of memory, and that the use of proxy technology relieves the CPU, means that inexpensive components can be used in the handsets

  • Reuse the deep knowledge about wireless network infrastructure to develop advanced servers that seamlessly integrates mobile VAS with telephony

  • Seize the opportunity to introduce new innovative products

Tools Providers

Today, we have a number of tools available for creating applications for the web. Content
developers have become accustomed to the convenience that tools like FrontPage and DreamWeaver provides. Tools providers will be able to −

  • Reuse and modify existing products to support WAP or even integrate WAP support in existing tools.

  • Address a new customer base in the wireless community.

WAP &-8211; Modern Devices

A WAP device is a combination of hardware and software capable of running a WAP-compliant microbrowser, such as a WAP-enabled mobile phone or a PDA.

A PC can also be used as a WAP device, if you download a WAP phone emulator from one of the developer sites. The emulator allows you to use a virtual phone on your desktop. Some major suppliers such as Ericsson, Nokia, and Openwave, have developer sites where you can download software development kits (SDKs) containing WAP emulators.

A WAP phone can run any WAP application in the same way that a Web browser can run any HTML application. Once you have a WAP phone, you can access the Internet simply by entering URLs and following the links that appear.

These devices provide easy and secure access to the internet content and other services such as banking, leisure, and unified messaging. Furthermore, access is not restricted only to the Internet, but it can also deal with intranet information in the same way as internet content because both are based upon HTML.

Following is a selection of WAP phones that have been announced recently −

  • Black Dual SIM Quadband SVP I5180 with QWERTY Keyboard (Unlocked) - Bluetooth, Camera, FM/MP3/MP4/AVI, GPRS, WAP
  • K1 Watch Phone Mobile with Quad Band+camera+bluetooth+fm Radio+mp3/mp4 Player+e-book+wap
  • 5.0 Inch Eson Original H9503 S4 Mtk6572 Cortex A9 Dual Core Three Sim, Three Standby (2 X SIM Card Slot and 1 X Micro SIM Card Slot) Android 4.2.2 Smart Phone Unlocked Bluetooth Back Camera 8.0mp 3g Wifi (white)

WAP &-8211; Future Prospects

The future of WAP depends largely on whether consumers decide to use WAP devices to access the Web, and also on whether a new technology comes along that would require a different infrastructure than WAP.

On the consumer side, the factors largely involve the limitations of WAP and of handheld devices, the low bandwidth, the limited input ability, and the small screens all require users to adapt from their regular Web-browsing expectations.

In the next few years, mobile phones will start to benefit from very high bandwidth capabilities. The 2.5G/3G systems will allow much higher capacity and data rates, than can be offered by the restricted bandwidth currently available.

These wireless devices will be supported by a number of emerging technologies including GPRS, EDGE, HSCSD, and UMTS:

So what is the future for WAP? It has been designed to be independent of the underlying network technology. The original constraints WAP was designed for &-8211; intermittent coverage, small screens, low power consumption, wide scalability over bearers and devices, and one-handed operation &-8211; are still valid in 2.5G and 3G networks.

The bottom line is that WAP is not and can never be the Web on your mobile phone. WAP is great as long as developers understand that it&-8217;s what&-8217;s inside the applications that matters, and the perceived value of the content to the user. The browser interface itself, while important will always be secondary to the content.

WAP &-8211; Summary

In this tutorial, you have been introduced to all the basic concepts of WAP and WML, WMLScript, and the WAP architecture.

WAP key features benefits have also been discussed together with a look at what the future holds in this quickly moving market.

What is Next ?

Now you have basic understanding on WAP. The next step after WAP can be to learn any of the following technologies.

GPRS (General Packet Radio System)

A packet-switched wireless protocol with transmission rates from 115Kbps to 171Kbps. It will be the first service available to offer full instant wireless access to the Web. A main benefit is that users are always connected online, and will be charged only for the amount of data that is transported.

For GSM providers, this new technology will increase data rates of both circuit switching (High Speed Circuit Switched Data [HSCSD]) and packet switching (GPRS) by a factor of 10 to 15 times.

EDGE (Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution)

A higher bandwidth version of GPRS with speeds of up to 384Kbps, or twice that available from GPRS alone.

It has been evolved from GSM, which is the prevailing standard throughout Europe and the Asia Pacific region.

For GSM providers, this new technology will increase data rates of both circuit switching (HSCSD) and packet switching (GPRS) by a factor of 20 to 30 times.

HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data)

HSCSD is a new high-speed implementation of GSM data techniques. It uses four radio channels simultaneously. It is capable enough to allow users to access the Internet via the GSM network at much higher data rates than at present. Data rates can be transmitted at 38.4Kbps or even faster over GSM networks.

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)

UMTS will allow a future mass market for high-quality wireless multimedia communications that will approach two billion users worldwide by the year 2010.

This new technology will deliver low-cost, high-capacity wireless communications, offering data rates of 1Mbps to 2Mbps with global roaming and other advanced UMTS services.

Now, if you need more detail about WAP technology then I would recommend you to go through other WAP resources listed in WAP Useful Resources chapter.

Please send me your feedback and suggestion at [email protected]


WAP &-8211; Home

WAP &-8211; Introduction

WAP &-8211; Key Features

WAP &-8211; The Model

WAP &-8211; Architecture

WAP &-8211; Environment

WAP &-8211; WML Syntax

WAP &-8211; WML Script

WAP &-8211; Core Services

WAP &-8211; Key Benefits

WAP &-8211; Modern Devices

WAP &-8211; Future Prospects

WAP &-8211; Summary

WAP &-8211; Quick Guide

WAP &-8211; Useful Resources

WAP &-8211; Useful Acronyms

WAP &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who

WAP – Summary

WAP &-8211; Summary &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-13 20:53:58 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

WAP &-8211; Summary


In this tutorial, you have been introduced to all the basic concepts of WAP and WML, WMLScript, and the WAP architecture.

WAP key features benefits have also been discussed together with a look at what the future holds in this quickly moving market.

What is Next ?

Now you have basic understanding on WAP. The next step after WAP can be to learn any of the following technologies.

GPRS (General Packet Radio System)

A packet-switched wireless protocol with transmission rates from 115Kbps to 171Kbps. It will be the first service available to offer full instant wireless access to the Web. A main benefit is that users are always connected online, and will be charged only for the amount of data that is transported.

For GSM providers, this new technology will increase data rates of both circuit switching (High Speed Circuit Switched Data [HSCSD]) and packet switching (GPRS) by a factor of 10 to 15 times.

EDGE (Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution)

A higher bandwidth version of GPRS with speeds of up to 384Kbps, or twice that available from GPRS alone.

It has been evolved from GSM, which is the prevailing standard throughout Europe and the Asia Pacific region.

For GSM providers, this new technology will increase data rates of both circuit switching (HSCSD) and packet switching (GPRS) by a factor of 20 to 30 times.

HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data)

HSCSD is a new high-speed implementation of GSM data techniques. It uses four radio channels simultaneously. It is capable enough to allow users to access the Internet via the GSM network at much higher data rates than at present. Data rates can be transmitted at 38.4Kbps or even faster over GSM networks.

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)

UMTS will allow a future mass market for high-quality wireless multimedia communications that will approach two billion users worldwide by the year 2010.

This new technology will deliver low-cost, high-capacity wireless communications, offering data rates of 1Mbps to 2Mbps with global roaming and other advanced UMTS services.

Now, if you need more detail about WAP technology then I would recommend you to go through other WAP resources listed in WAP Useful Resources chapter.

Please send me your feedback and suggestion at [email protected]


WAP &-8211; Home

WAP &-8211; Introduction

WAP &-8211; Key Features

WAP &-8211; The Model

WAP &-8211; Architecture

WAP &-8211; Environment

WAP &-8211; WML Syntax

WAP &-8211; WML Script

WAP &-8211; Core Services

WAP &-8211; Key Benefits

WAP &-8211; Modern Devices

WAP &-8211; Future Prospects

WAP &-8211; Summary

WAP &-8211; Quick Guide

WAP &-8211; Useful Resources

WAP &-8211; Useful Acronyms

WAP &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who