Business Ideas

Yam Farming Business In Nigeria: Guide on How To Start (2020)



How to start yam farming business in Nigeria is what this post seeks to explain. It will serve as a step by step guide for farmers who want to learn how to cultivate/plant yam tubers.

yam-farming-in-nigeria
Yam Farming In Nigeria: How To Start the Business

Yam is consumed almost everywhere in the world, but this particular food is considered popular in Africa. In Nigeria, yam production was what sustained the economy until oil was discovered. Yam farming is cultivated and popular in almost every state of the country as farmers who engage in this kind of farming either sell their yams for money or use it for feeding. Either ways, Yam farming business is a lucrative one which is sure to yield you profit.

It baffles me that Nigeria who is the major producer of yam in the world don’t export to other countries the way Ghana, a neighboring country does on a yearly basis. The profit one can make from this venture runs in millions if its on a large scale which makes yam farming in Nigeria an important business opportunity to start. If you are a beginner and are looking for an easy yam planting guide on how to plant yam tubers, then this article is sure to answer all your questions.

There are some factors to consider if you want to start planting yam anywhere in the country. Factors like the land to use, soil, the season to plant the yam and cultivate it, cost of yam farming and the capital needed, e.t.c. We shall take a look at some of the important rationale below.

Easy Steps on How To Start Yam Farming In Nigeria

1. Preparation of the Land/Soil

If you have a land, lets say one hectare; you would have to prepare the soil for planting the yam seeds. If there are bushes and grasses in the land, you would have to clear it before the rainy season. This would allow the weeds dry up with the soil and form organic manure. Once that is done, you can now prepare the heap or ridge beds. Measurement should be one meter apart from each ridge and one meter high. Take care to note that all beds must be carefully made with the land’s contour to checkmate erosion.

According to an agricultural experts, yams are best planted in an upland well-drained field, which is the land suitable for yam farming. The best soil for planting yam is sandy loam and silt loam soil. If you must use clay loam soil, they must be rich in organic matter. If you plant yam on stony hard soil, you might find it difficult to cultivate later. You might also want to grow yam tubers in forest lands as most tropical region might be the best environment for growing yam tubers both in soil quality and climate conditions.

2. Prepare your Setts properly

Proper preparation of setts is vital. Pre-sprouting according to experts can help reduce weeds which in turn help the setts grow. Setts are also known as the yam seeds that will be planted. Just like heat sett, tail sett and middle set that forms a healthy yam tuber, they are small pieces of the yam tuber. Treat the cut sets with fungicide or with ash. Also take the size of the sett into consideration.

3. Plant the Yams

Every seed, vegetable, cereal etc has a time and season to be planted. Yam is best planted during rainy season within the months of October and October. These periods are also the best periods for land preparation. If you are planting white yam, it would be best you do that during march although, it depends on when the rainy season starts. If you have a hectare of land to start off, you can have between 19,000 to 25,000 setts.

4. Weeding

This is essential as you would want your yams healthy when harvested. It all depends if you planted pre-sprouted or non-sprouted setts, you might just weed about two to four times.

5. Harvesting & sale of tubers

The time to harvest your yams should be when the stalk and leaves shows yellowish signs of drying up. This occurs around November and can stretch till the next year around October. Its best you first harvest your commercial tubers early before it reaches the stage of yellowing and drying up. The rest can be done later.

Cost of Yam Farming in Nigeria

The cost of cultivating yam is dependent on the sizes of yam, barn and land you tend to use in planting. In Nigeria today, purchasing yam tubers can be a expensive, as hundred tubers can be sold for N50,000 or more. This is dependent on the area of the country in which you purchased the yams.

Although, if you have a land and would want to start, N200,000 to N500,000 should be enough money or funds you would need to start a yam farm in Nigeria. This include hiring labourers and purchase of farm equipment.

Conclusion

There is hardly a person you would find who doesn’t eat yam in Nigeria or even the world. It is one of the best sources of starch. The market will always be there for you to sell these yam tubers and make profit from it. I believe this step by step guide on Yam farming in Nigeria will help open the eyes of beginners on how to go about this business venture easily.

Wheat Farming In Nigeria: Guide on How To Start (2020)



This article serves as guide on how to start wheat farming in Nigeria. Since the market is everywhere, cultivating wheat in the country is a sure business that would yeild profit.

wheat farming in nigeria

Wheat processing in the country isn’t that familiar. Although, people patronize the products gotten from wheat such as biscuit, spaghetti, bread, cookies and noodles. Not only these, even many local delicacies depend on this cereal. Most notable is the wheat flour.

Others includes fura (drank alongside nunu), dan wake (Hausa local food), etc. The high demand on wheat means there’s a market for wheat production and as far as the production of wheat in Nigeria is concern, it is pretty much low compared to it demand.

So, you can start a wheat farm in Nigeria and make a fortune from it. This article will describe the steps required to start a wheat farm business in Nigeria.

Step 1: Write out your buisiness plan

Writing a wheat farming business plan should be the first thing you would need to do. This should help you phathom the direction where you want your business to go to.

Step 2: Site and Seed Selection

The second step to cultivating wheat in Nigeria is deciding on the location and variety of wheat to plant. First of all, know this; wheats don’t grow everywhere.

They have their own needs and that is why they are mostly grown in the northern part of the country. States that support farming of wheats includes Bauchi, Adamawa, Sokoto, Kano, Borno, Jigawa, Zamfara, Kebbi, Gombe, Yobe and Kaduna.

One of the requirements for wheat production is the cultivation is rainfall. The range of rainfall that support wheat production is 500 – 1200mm. however, when it gets below these, irrigation is requirement to substitute rainfall.

Another requirement of wheat is a well-drained soil that is low in acid and saline content.

Step 3: Select wheat type

After choosing where to locate your farm, the next step is to choose the variety of wheat to plant and that will depend on what you want to use the weed for or what your intended market will use the wheat for so you need to read on the variety of wheats and their specific requirement and what they are best used for.

Step 4: Planting and post planting

After your site and seed selection and of course, land clearing, tilling and other preparation activities, the next step is to plant the wheats. They are usually planted during the dry season around November/December.

This is the harmattan period and does not support weed growth so when it is the time weeds will start growing well, the wheats are all grown and can suppress the growth of the weeds.

Wheats can be planted either mechanically or manually. If you are going the manual route, you can plant it by digging trenches using a shovel or a wheat drill and then put in the seed and then cover it. Most people go the manual method using the wheat drill.

After planting, the next step is taking care of your plants to ensure maximum productivity and prevent anything that can decrease productivity. First thing is irrigation. The wheat farm should be watered monthly if the area does not enjoy abundant rainfall.

Aside watering, application of fertilizer is one important activity to boost fertility and productivity. The fertilizer to be used is the NPK fertilizer and should be applied twice.

It should be applied using the 60:50:50 ratio and then after 6 weeks, you use the 60:0:0 ratio. Also, prevent your plants from pests and diseases by watching out for them and visiting the closest agricultural store and seeking for help from a professional.

Step 5: Harvesting

Usually, your wheats should be ready for harvest. However, don’t go harvesting when it is not ready yet. To know if your wheat is ready for harvest or not, rub the head between your fingers and chew the wheat grain. If the wheat cracks in your mouth and becomes soft, it is ready for harvest.

To harvest the wheat, cut the stalk and winnow to remove the chaff. After harvesting, it is time to store your grains. The storage method used for wheat is pneumatic, it is stored in 3 layered bags to deprive any insect larva or egg from survival. However, one thing you need to guard against is rat infestation.

Water Melon Farming in Nigeria: Guide on How To Start (2020)



Watermelon farming in Nigeria: step by step guide on how to farm water melon conveniently in Nigeria today.

Watermelon is one of the nutritious crops out there. This crop which has come to be accepted as a fruit is packed with enormous health benefits. It is loaded with nutrients such as potassium, magnesium, iron, folic acid, vitamin A and C and lycopene among others.

Water melon is linked with so many health benefits such as muscle health, eye, skin and hair care as well as help reduce cancer. These as well as it antioxidants and satisfactory feel and taste makes watermelon a very popular not only in Nigeria or Africa but in the world at large.

In fact, watermelon is the 3 most cultivated crops in the world directly behind potatoes and tomatoes.

water-melons

This article will enlighten you on the step by step process of how to cultivate water melons in the country. 

Watermelon is rich in nutrients which include potassium, magnesium, iron, folic acid, B vitamins as well as vitamin A and C. It is also made up of an antioxidant known as lycopene which protects the skin from ultraviolet rays of the sun. Frequent consumption of watermelon can help to prevent sunburn. The lycopene content can also help reduce the risk of cancer. Below are listed some of the health benefits of water melon.

Eye care

Macular degeneration which is very common among the old and elderly can be prevented by the antioxidant, lycopene in water melons.

Muscle health

Watermelon contains the alpha-amino acid, citrulline which can be administered to athletes, to help relieve muscle soreness. Citrulline also improves exercise performance and endurance.

Skin and hair care

Water melons are rich in vitamins A and Can, and these vitamins are very important in skin and hair care. Vitamin A also improves eye sight while Vitamin C helps prevent scurvy. The antioxidant, lycopene as earlier stated, also protects the skin from sunburn.

WaterMelon Farming in Nigeria: Step by Step Process

Watermelon is widely cultivated in Northern Nigeria, it is very popular in the North. Large quantities of watermelon consumed in Southern Nigeria comes from the Northern part of the country.

However, water melon can be cultivated in any part of the country and in this article, we will guide you through the steps in planting and harvesting water melon in your location.

Site Selection

The first step to start a successful watermelon farm in Nigeria is choosing a suitable location that supports the growth of this fruit.

One of the requirements of water melon is that it requires a hot and dry climate, making the northern part of the country naturally suited for farming watermelon.

However, this does not mean it cannot be planted in the south. Watermelon also requires a sandy or loamy soil that is well drained and the farm must be exposed to sunlight.

Watermelon, when planted, does really well in hot, dry climate; it is little wonder why it is widely cultivated in the Northern part of the country.

But be informed that the ideal planting region for this plant is not necessarily the North. It can be cultivated in any part of the country.

Cultivation usually commences during the rainy season to take advantage of the relatively low humidity associated with rainy season.

Planting begins in Northern Nigeria in October for the early season or October for the late season.

Generally, watermelon can be planted all year round in the North as long as their adequate water supply through irrigation.

In Southern Nigeria, planting commences in March which is the early planting season. Planting can be done in the mid-planting season which is either in late October or early October.

There is a late planting season too which is in October or October. The mid-season planting is highly dependent on the rain. If the rains which is expected to commence in mid October starts much earlier, then planting is possible in this period.

Soil Type 

The ideal soil for cultivating watermelons is either sandy soil or loamy soil.

The farm should be adequately sunlit and to boost soil fertility, organic manure or fertilizer in the right proportion should be added to the soil.

Spacing

Watermelon requires a lot of space. The plant is a rambling vine and can smother anything it comes in contact with.

Even if watermelons are not climbers, they can be trained on trellis. Trellis help increase their exposure to sunlight and also helps to save space.

You will need a bit of expertise when constructing or installing the trellis because they need to be strong enough to support the weight of the developing fruit.

Land Preparation

Plough the land before planting. Plant the same day of ploughing.

It has been observed that planting this way is better than waiting till the next day.

Before watermelon can be planted, you need to prepare the land. To prepare the land in anticipation of planting, plough the land and plant that same day.

However, you can wait till the next day if you wish. There are different seed varieties of water-melon such as the black diamond, Congo, crimson sweet and moon & stars.

Learn about each of these variety and their unique features and requirement before making a decision on which to plant. Watermelon is planted usually at the beginning of the raining season or at the end of the raining season.

You can plant water melon on either a flat surface or on ridges. However, it is recommended you plant on ridges.

Also note that watermelon require a lot of space. The plant is a rampling vine and can smother anything it comes in contact with. Although they do not climb, you can train them on strong trellis to increase their exposure to sunlight and also save space.

The planting hole should be about 30cm in depth. The planting rows should be about 2 meters apart and the spacing between plants should be 1 foot apart.

Seed Selection

There are many variants of the water melon plants from which you can select from when starting your farm. Some of these are:

– Black Diamond

The black diamond species is almost black in colour and its rind is bruise resistant rind. It is sweet tasting and has a luscious flesh.

– Congo

This species has a juicy red flesh and it has a high sugar content. The melon is oblong and medium green with dark-green stripes. This species is generally common in Nigeria.

– Crimson Sweet

This is a really sweet variety of the water melon species. It has a deep red flesh with a unique dark-green striped rind. This is another common variety in Nigeria.

– Moon and Stars

This is watermelon variety is characterized by its red flesh.

Planting

Water melon can be planted on the flat land or on ridges. If the soil is clay, planting on a ridge or bed is recommended.

On the other hand, you can plant on a flat land if the soil is loamy. The planting hole should be about 30 cm in depth.

When growing in commercial quantities you can plant on ridges. The soil used should be well drained because the watermelon plant doesn’t do well in water logged environment.

It is never recommended to grow your water melon in the nursery. Usually the watermelon seed sprouts within a few days.

The plant rows should be about 2 metres apart and the spacing between plants should be 1 foot apart. Growing the plant in raised rows ensure good drainage.

Generally, the method of planting also depends on the variety. If you are planting the Congo or Crimson Variety, you should make sure the rows are at least 10 feet apart.

Prior to planting, you can evaluate the quality of the water melon seeds by dipping them into a salt solution (3-5%). The ones that should be planted should readily sink into the bottom of the bowl.

Additionally, the leathery seeds need to be softened before they can be planted.

Also, you can make the plants more resistant to pest and diseases by drying the seeds under the sun for a week prior to planting. You should add humus to the soil prior to planting.

This is better than organic manure because manure often affects the taste of the watermelon and it weakens the resistance of the plant to disease.

You can also use inorganic fertilizers like phosphorus and potassium.

Post Planting

You need to water the plant once a week until they become mature. You can also mulch the soil.

This is important because watermelon need adequate moisture for optimal growth. Mulch also helps to keep the weeds out

Also you should be adding organic manure frequently. You can also use inorganic fertilizers.

The growing plant requires a high level of nitrogen however, once the plant flowers and fruits you can reduce the nitrogen supply and increase the phosphorus and potassium supply.

You can adjust the tip of the watermelon vine to grow in the direction. You can also use trellis to support their growth and increase their exposure to sunlight.

A certain insect called the leaf eating beetle often disrupt the growth of water melon by attacking the leaves.

You can reduce the attack on the water melon leaves by improving the soil conditions of the plant. In the case, the water melon plant will grow fast enough to diminish the effect of these beetles.

In terms of disease infestation, mildew is a fungus that affects the leaves of the plant. You can avoid this disease by preventing the leaves of the water melon from staying wet long enough to cause mildew.

This can be done by avoiding overheard watering

After planting, you need to nurture your crop so you can get the maximum economic value from them. The first thing to take note is mulching, you need to do that because they help keep weed away and keep the soil moist.

Also important is watering. This should be done once a week until the crop matures. You should also apply manure or inorganic fertilizer when necessary.

While you do the above, guard against pest and diseases as they can dip the whole of your investment in vain.

It takes about 3 months for watermelon to be ready for harvest. When the tendrils are dry and you can hear a dull sound when flapping the fruit.

When it is confirmed they are ready for harvest, cut the stems close to the fruit with a sharp knife.

Harvesting

It takes 3 months for water melon to mature in readiness for harvest. This means you can plant up to 3 times in a year.The watermelon should be ready for harvest once they are fully ripe.

The signs of ripening include the dryness of the tendrils as well as a dull sound when flapping the fruit. At this point when you put pressure on the melon, you can hear a crackle around the rind.

Another way to confirm its time to harvest is by checking the bottom of the melon. This part which is closest to the soil should have turned deep yellow from white.

Also, the color at the top is also important. When the watermelon turns ripe, there’s usually a contrast between the strips.

The stems should be cut with a sharp knife close to the fruit. Water melon can last up to 10 days, however, once cut, they would only last about 4 days.

Marketing

You should have known your target market before starting your farm to enable you deliver your produce to specific delivery points.

This is done so that your produce don’t have to stay on the farmland too long before they are transported to their target customers.

Watermelon are perishable goods so note that once harvested, they can only last for a few days. With this in mind, you should have a buyer close to your farm or where you can access before the goods perish.

Hope this guide helps

Ugwu Farming In Nigeria: Guide on How To Start (2020)



Want to make money from vegetable farming in Nigeria? Then start an Ugwu farm because it is profitable and the demand is high.

ugwu-farming-in-nigeria

Ugwu leaves also known as fluted pumpkin has so many health and nutitious benefits. Some include: serves as an immune booster, it is a natural hematinic has a blood sugar reducing effect. This vegetable can also help prevent kidney diseases due to it high phosphorus content.

The use of ugwu is on the rise. It is used in the manufacturing of herbs and as we all know, the leaves is use in preparing popular Nigerian soups such as the egusi soup, ogbono soup and edi kain kong soup.

It had been estimated that about 30 – 35 million people in Nigeria consume these leaf. This tells you that starting a commercial ugwu farm in the country is a profitable venture.

Steps on How To Start Ugwu Farming in NIgeria

If you want to start an Ugwu farm in Nigeria, follow the steps outline below.

Step1: Site Selection And Preparation

One interesting thing about ugwu (fluted pumpkin) is that it can be planted virtually everywhere in the country provided the soil is fertile, well-drained and not waterlogged.

The farms should be exposed to sunlight and the soil must be at a particular pH level. The pH level of soil for ugwu is between 6.5-7.

After your choice of site, you’ll need to clear the farmland and apply organic manure two weeks before you plant.

After preparing your site, your need to prepare the seed. You have two options; you can either buy the pod containing the seed or buy the dried seeds. I will advise to go for the seeds as it is less stressful.

Step 2: Planting And Post Planting

The seeds are planted usually between October to October and this is good for the vegetable as it does well in rainy season. The seed should be planted a foot apart and the depth shouldn’t be that deep.

After planting, the next step is to care for your plants. Water the seeds every day for at least two weeks. Typically, plants begin to germinate after a week or two.

Also, weeding should be done every 2 weeks to ensure that the growing plant isn’t starved of water and the vital nutrients. When the seed start to germinate, use stick of a meter or two and place it close to the plant. The plants will start climbing the sticks, this help prevent them against disease especially during the rainy season.

Two things to guard against are pest and diseases. Guard against them. Watch out for goats and their likes, they are dangerous to the growth of your farm.

Step 3: Harversting

Ugwu are ready for harvest a month after planting. Usually, if your farm is commercial, it is best you wait for two months before you start harvesting and you can keep harvesting for 8 months at an interval of 15 days.

As you can see, cultivating ugwu leaf (fluted pumpkin) isn’t that money consuming. You are sure to get profit from this business because the demand is high and the market is everywhere.

Watch video on how someone made million via ugwu farming in Nigeria

Turkey Farming in Nigeria: Guide on How to Start (2020)



Turkey Farming in Nigeria is a poultry business that is lucrative, easy to rear, manage and control. This article will serve as a turkey rearing guide to those who wish to establish a turkey farm here in Nigeria.

guide-on-how-to-start-turkey-farming-business-in-nigeria

One might ask, How profitable is turkey farming business in Nigeria? I would say, very profitable as you can make a whole lot of money from establishing a Turkey farm in Nigeria. There was a certain time when Turkey like other agricultural products were imported into Nigeria in large quantities on a daily basis, thereby reducing sales for poultry farmers in Nigeria who rear turkeys. The ban on importation of turkeys into Nigeria by the Federal Government has made the market for turkey farming in Nigeria open to local poultry farmers in Nigeria who wish to venture into such business.

To start the process of running a profitable turkey farming business in Nigeria, you must first know the basics and probably a turkey farming business plan as it is with other kinds of lucrative farming businesses in Nigeria

An Overview on Turkey Farming

As earlier said, Turkey is a poultry bird or a domestic fowl that is easy to rear. Most people in Nigeria prefer to eat Turkey meat to other kinds of meat like goat meat, cow meat, e.t.c because of its soft and delicious nature. Apart from being the most demanded meat in the Nigerian market, it is also the fastest growing poultry fowl you could rear.

Although, turkey rearing in Nigeria might seem easy, adequate care must be given to these domestic birds because of their frail nature. On thing about turkeys is that its feathers, fertilized eggs and droppings can all be sold. Turkey are best preserved frozen in a freezer as seen in most frozen food stores in Nigeria.

You should also be aware on how long it takes for a turkey to grow into an adult and how long it takes to raise a turkey. According to research, the hen usually takes 14 weeks and the tom up(male) up to 22 weeks to grow to market weight. As for turkey eggs, incubation period is 28 days.

Required Facilities to start a Turkey Farm in Nigeria

Below are the important facilities required to establish a turkey farm in Nigeria

1. Poultry Farm

The poultry farm should be constructed professionally as this will serve as the area where the turkeys will raised. Ventilation and Temperature should also be taken into consideration as the material used in creating a poultry farm should be able to adjust to weather conditions that will suit the turkey birds. Also make space for turkey feeds and their drinking water trunk.

2. Poultry Feeds

This is the most essential aspect of Turkey farming that would require spending on the part of the poultry farmer if he want a healthy fertile poultry farm of turkeys. Poultry farmers are advised to feed turkeys with mostly fats and carbohydrates as these are known to help increase the energy and size of the fowl, in as much as the right balanced ration of feeds are used. It also aids in the production of eggs.

Turkeys are also known to eat a lot and are seen as the highest water drinkers in a Nigerian poultry farm.

3. Knowledge of poultry farming

If you need first-hand practical turkey farming experience, you could attach to a nearby poultry farm. You could also read relevant materials like this one, make in-depth research and start-up your business. The former option is better if you have access to a poultry farm.

Turkey Farming: Feasibility Study on Turkey Farming Business

Although, this is just a rough estimate on the amount of money you can use to run a turkey business in Nigeria because of the economic instability at the moment, Turkey farming is not that expensive as you can start a turkey farm with 5 turkeys at N100, 000 (N20,000 each for 2 females and three males).

One thing i know that makes turkey farming look expensive in Nigeria is the feeds, periodic treatment of turkeys, Poultry construction, e.t.c which might be up to N200,000. All these are just rough estimates but will pay off in the long run

Turkey Farming Disadvantages and Risks Involved

The risks involved in starting a turkey farm includes:

  • Rodents like bush rats, insects like soldier ants and even snakes can be an expensive threat to your turkey farming business as they might eat up the eggs and fowls if not curbed.
  • The emergence of turkey related diseases like bird flu due to Unhygienic poultry could lead to infections which spread faster to turkeys than other poultry animals.

Turkey Farming Advantages in Nigeria

  • Turkey farming business is not that capital intensive as other animal husbandry businesses in Nigeria.
  • Turkeys are easy to rear and manage provided that the right equipment and facilities are in place.
  • The market for selling turkeys are everywhere as the demand for turkey in Nigeria is high.
  • The risk involved in turkey rearing is also low when compared to other poultry farming business in Nigeria