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Managerial Economics – Useful Resources

Managerial Economics &-8211; Useful Resources &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-13 02:09:33 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

Managerial Economics &-8211; Useful Resources


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The following resources contain additional information on Managerial Economics. Please use them to get more in-depth knowledge on this.

Useful Links on Managerial Economics

Useful Books on Managerial Economics

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Managerial Economics &-8211; Home

Managerial Economics Overview

Business Firms & Decisions

Economic Analysis & Optimizations

Regression Technique

Market System & Equilibrium

Demand & Elasticities

Demand Forecasting

Theory of Production

Cost & Breakeven Analysis

Market Structure & Pricing Decisions

Pricing Strategies

Investment Under Certainty

Investment Under Uncertainty

Macroeconomics Basics

Circular Flow Model of Economy

National Income & Measurement

National Income Determination

Theories of Economic Growth

Business Cycles & Stabilization

Inflation & ITS Control Measures

Managerial Economics &-8211; Quick Guide

Managerial Economics &-8211; Resources

Managerial Economics &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

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Discuss Managerial Economics

Discuss Managerial Economics &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-13 02:09:33 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

Discuss Managerial Economics


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Managerial economics is concerned with the application of economic concepts and economic analysis to the problems of formulating rational managerial decisions. This tutorial covers most of the topics of managerial economics including micro, macro, and managerial economic relationship; demand forecasting, production and cost analysis, market structure and pricing theory.




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Managerial Economics &-8211; Home

Managerial Economics Overview

Business Firms & Decisions

Economic Analysis & Optimizations

Regression Technique

Market System & Equilibrium

Demand & Elasticities

Demand Forecasting

Theory of Production

Cost & Breakeven Analysis

Market Structure & Pricing Decisions

Pricing Strategies

Investment Under Certainty

Investment Under Uncertainty

Macroeconomics Basics

Circular Flow Model of Economy

National Income & Measurement

National Income Determination

Theories of Economic Growth

Business Cycles & Stabilization

Inflation & ITS Control Measures

Managerial Economics &-8211; Quick Guide

Managerial Economics &-8211; Resources

Managerial Economics &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who

National Income Determination

National Income Determination &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-13 02:09:31 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

National Income Determination


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Factors Determining the National Income

According to Keynes there are two major factors that determine the national income of an economy −

Aggregate Supply

Aggregate supply comprises of consumer goods as well as producer goods. It is defined as total value of goods and services produced and supplied at a particular point of time. When goods and services produced at a particular point of time is multiplied by the respective prices of goods and services, it helps us in getting the total value of the national output. The formula for determining the aggregate national income is follows −

Aggregate Income = Consumption(C) + Saving (S)

Few factor prices such as wages, rents are rigid in the short run. When demand in an economy increases, firms also tend to increase production to some extent. However, along with the production, some factor prices and the amount of inputs needed to increase production also increase.

Aggregate Demand

Aggregate demand is the effective aggregate expenditure of an economy in a particular time period. It is the effective demand which is equal to the actual expenditure. Aggregate demand involves concepts namely aggregate demand for consumer goods and aggregate demand for capital goods. Aggregate demand can be represented by the following formula −

AD = C + I

As per Keynes theory of nation income, investment (I) remains constant throughout, while consumption (C) keeps changing, and thus consumption is the major determinant of income.



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Managerial Economics &-8211; Home

Managerial Economics Overview

Business Firms & Decisions

Economic Analysis & Optimizations

Regression Technique

Market System & Equilibrium

Demand & Elasticities

Demand Forecasting

Theory of Production

Cost & Breakeven Analysis

Market Structure & Pricing Decisions

Pricing Strategies

Investment Under Certainty

Investment Under Uncertainty

Macroeconomics Basics

Circular Flow Model of Economy

National Income & Measurement

National Income Determination

Theories of Economic Growth

Business Cycles & Stabilization

Inflation & ITS Control Measures

Managerial Economics &-8211; Quick Guide

Managerial Economics &-8211; Resources

Managerial Economics &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who

Modern Theories of Economic Growth

Modern Theories of Economic Growth &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-13 02:09:31 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

Modern Theories of Economic Growth


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Definition of Economic Growth

Economic growth refers to an increase in the goods and services produced by an economy over a particular period of time. It is measured as a percentage increase in real gross domestic product which is GDP adjusted to inflation. GDP is the market value for all the final goods and services produced in an economy.

Theories of Economic Growth

The Classical Approach

Adam Smith laid emphasis on increasing returns as a source of economic growth. He focused on foreign trade to widen the market and raise productivity of trading countries. Trade enables a country to buy goods from abroad at a lower cost as compared to which they can be produced in the home country.

In modern growth theory, Lucas has strongly emphasized the role of increasing returns through direct foreign investment which encourages learning by doing through knowledge capital. In Southeast Asia, the newly industrialized countries (NICs) have achieved very high growth rates in the last two decades.

The Neoclassical Approach

The neoclassical approach to economic growth has been divided into two sections −

  • The first section is the competitive model of Walrasian equilibrium where markets play a very crucial role in allocating the resources effectively. To secure the optimal allocation of inputs and outputs, markets for labor, finance and capital have been used. This type of competitive paradigm was used by Solow to develop a growth model.

  • The second section of the neoclassical model assumes that technology is given. Solow used the interpretation that technology in the production function is superficial. The point is that R&D investment and human capital through learning by doing were not explicitly recognized.

The neoclassical growth model developed by Solow fails to explain the fact of actual growth behavior. This failure is caused due to the model’s prediction that per capita output approaches a steady state path along which it grows at a rate that is given. This means that the long-term rate of national growth is determined
outside the model and is independent of preferences and most aspects of the production function and policy measures.

The Modern Approach

The modern approach to market comprises of several features. The new economy emerging today is spreading all over the world. It is a revolution in knowledge capital and information explosion. Following are the important key elements −

  • Innovation theory by Schumpeter, inter firm and inter industry diffusion of knowledge.

  • Increasing efficiency of the telecommunications and micro-computer industry.

  • Global expansion of trade through modern externalities and networks.

Modern theory of economic growth focuses mainly on two channels of inducing growth through expenses spent on research and development on the core component of knowledge innovations. First channel is the impact on the available goods and services and the other one is the impact on the stock of knowledge phenomena.



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Managerial Economics &-8211; Home

Managerial Economics Overview

Business Firms & Decisions

Economic Analysis & Optimizations

Regression Technique

Market System & Equilibrium

Demand & Elasticities

Demand Forecasting

Theory of Production

Cost & Breakeven Analysis

Market Structure & Pricing Decisions

Pricing Strategies

Investment Under Certainty

Investment Under Uncertainty

Macroeconomics Basics

Circular Flow Model of Economy

National Income & Measurement

National Income Determination

Theories of Economic Growth

Business Cycles & Stabilization

Inflation & ITS Control Measures

Managerial Economics &-8211; Quick Guide

Managerial Economics &-8211; Resources

Managerial Economics &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who

Business Cycles & Stabilization

Business Cycles & Stabilization &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-13 02:09:31 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

Business Cycles & Stabilization


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Business cycles are the rhythmic fluctuations in the aggregate level of economic activity of a nation. Business cycle comprises of following phases −

  • Depression
  • Recovery
  • Prosperity
  • Inflation
  • Recession

Business cycles occur because of reasons such as good or bad climatic conditions, under consumption or over consumption, strikes, war, floods, draughts, etc

Theories of Business Cycles

Schumpeter’s Theory of Innovation

According to Schumpeter, an innovation is defined as the development of a new product or introduction of a new product or a process of production, development of new market or a change in the market.

Over − Investment Theory

Professor Hayek says, “primary cause of business cycles is monetary overestimate”. He says business cycles are caused by over investment and consequently by over production. When a bank charges rate of interest below the
equilibrium rate, the business has to borrow more funds which leads to business fluctuations.

Monetary Theory

According to Professor Hawtrey, all the changes in the business cycles take place due to monetary policies. According to him the flow in the monetary demand leads to prosperity or depression in the economy. Cyclical fluctuations are caused by expansion and contraction of bank credit. These conditions increase or decrease the flow of money in the economy.

Stabilization Policies

Stabilization policies are also known as counter cycle policies. These policies try to counter the natural ups and downs of business cycles. Expansionary stabilization policies are useful to reduce unemployment during contraction and contractionary policies are used to reduce inflation during expansion.

Instruments of Stabilization Policies

The flow chart of stablilization policies is described below:

Stabilization Policies

Monetary Policy

Monetary policy is employed by the government as an effective tool to promote economic stability and achieve certain predetermined objectives. It deals with the total money supply and its management in an economy. Objectives of monetary policy include exchange rate stability, price stability, full employment, rapid
economic growth, etc.

Fiscal Policy

Fiscal policy helps to formulate rational consumption policy and helps to increase savings. It raises the volume of investments and the standards of living. Fiscal policy creates more jobs, reduces economic inequalities and controls, inflation and deflation. Fiscal policy as an instrument to fight depression and create full employment conditions is much more effective as compared to monetary policy.

Physical Policy

When monetary policy and fiscal policy are inadequate to control prices, government adapts physical policy. These policies can be introduced swiftly and thus the result is quite rapid. Theses controls are more discriminatory as compared to monetary policy. They tend to vary effectively in the intensity of the operation of control from time to time in various sectors.



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Managerial Economics &-8211; Home

Managerial Economics Overview

Business Firms & Decisions

Economic Analysis & Optimizations

Regression Technique

Market System & Equilibrium

Demand & Elasticities

Demand Forecasting

Theory of Production

Cost & Breakeven Analysis

Market Structure & Pricing Decisions

Pricing Strategies

Investment Under Certainty

Investment Under Uncertainty

Macroeconomics Basics

Circular Flow Model of Economy

National Income & Measurement

National Income Determination

Theories of Economic Growth

Business Cycles & Stabilization

Inflation & ITS Control Measures

Managerial Economics &-8211; Quick Guide

Managerial Economics &-8211; Resources

Managerial Economics &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who