Virtualization

How to Manage OpenVz using HyperVM Virtualization Manager on RHEL/CentOS 5

How to Manage OpenVz using HyperVM Virtualization Manager on RHEL/CentOS 5 &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-28 19:42:52 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

We all know that nowadays Virtualization is a buzzword, every company is now migrating their hardware server environments to Virtualization environment. Virtualization technology helps IT companies to reduce their IT expenses while boosting efficiency and productivity of servers. There are several technologies are now being popular in the market to implement Virtualization in your network.

Here in this tutorial, we‘ll be focusing on a “Free and an Open source Linux Virtualization software” called “OpenVZ” and learn that how to manage it with HyperVM. Before we proceed with its installation, here are some details about the OpenVZ technology and HyperVM.

What is OpenVz

OpenVZ is a Free and Open source Virtualization software for Linux. Its an Operating system-level Virtualization technology. It helps us to implement container-based Virtualization on our Linux servers. It allows us to create multiple secure Linux containers on a single machine. It treats those containers as a stand-alone machine and ensure that applications running in those containers do not conflict is any aspect.

These containers are also known as Virtual Private Server or VPS, Since it treats VPS‘s as a stand-alone server, we can reboot each VPS independently and each vps will be having its own root access, users, IP addresses, memory, processes, system libraries and configuration files and applications.

What is HyperVM

HyperVM is a most complete and Lightweight Virtualization manager product, developed by Lxcenter. It provides a single Graphical console to manage all our VPS containers and server resources with Admin access as well as container owner based access. With this console, we can perform operations like start, stop, restart, reinstall, upgrade/downgrade resources, backup, restore, migrate to each of our containers. Many Web hosting companies are using HyperVM with OpenVZ to provide Linux VPS hosting services.

Benefits of HyperVM

Some other Benefits of HyperVM are listed below.

  1. It supports OpenVZ and Xen Virtualization technology.
  2. Provides web based graphical user interface to manage the server.
  3. Creates virtual machines with Linux OS within minutes with the help of precreated templates.
  4. Easy to integrate with WHMCS (Billing Software for Web hosts) for Instant setup of VPSs and their management from Billing software end only.
  5. Intelligent way of managing server resources like IPs, Networks, Memory, CPU and disk space.

Installing HyperVM (Multi-Virtualization) on RHEL/CentOS 5

First, before proceeding further, it is recommended to disable selinux while installation.

[[email protected]~]- setenforce 0

Change the SELinux status in “/etc/sysconfig/selinux” file.

selinux=disabled

This is the easiest way to install HyperVM on CentOS/RHEL machines. We need to download latest HyperVM installation script “hypervm-install-master.sh” from the below link or use “wget” command to grab the script.

  1. http://download.lxcenter.org
[[email protected] ~] wget http://download.lxcenter.org/download/hypervm/production/hypervm-install-master.sh

Now, execute the script as root. This script will do all installations with its own, It will download all the required packages for HyperVM installation and their dependencies with Yum.

Since we are installing HyperVm with OpenVZ, we need to specify the Virtualization type while running the script.

[[email protected] ~]-sh ./hypervm-install-master.sh --virtualization-type=openvz
Sample Output
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, security
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirror.leapswitch.com
 * extras: mirror.leapswitch.com
 * updates: centos.excellmedia.net
Setting up Install Process
---------------------------------------------
--------- Output Omitted-----------
--------- Output Omitted-----------
---------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------
FINISHED --2013-09-26 20:41:41--
Downloaded: 2 files, 2.5K in 0s (30.4 MB/s)
Executing Update Cleanup... Will take a long time to finish....
Congratulations. hyperVM has been installed successfully on your server as master
You can connect to the server at https://ip-address>:8887 or http://ip-address>:8888
Please note that first is secure ssl connection, while the second is normal one.
The login and password are 'admin' 'admin'. After Logging in, you will have to change your password to something more secure
Thanks for choosing hyperVM to manage your Server, and allowing us to be of service

***There is one more step you have to do to make this complete. Open /etc/grub.conf, and change the 'default=1' line to 'default=0', and reboot this machine. You will be rebooted into the openvz kernel and will able to manage vpses from the hyperVM interface.

Here is a brief explanation of what this script will do.

  1. It downloads and install all the required package like wget, unzip, PHP, curls, lxlighthttpd, lxzend, lxphp, mysql and mysql-server along with their dependencies with the help of yum.
  2. Creates User and group for HyperVM
  3. Install mysql and create a database for HyperVM.
  4. It also installs required packages for OpenVZ kernel and vzctl.
  5. It also downloads a precreated template of CentOS which will be used to create virtual machines.

Change the default value “0” to “1” in “/etc/grub.conf” to boot your server in with OpenVZ kernel and Reboot your server.

[[email protected] ~]-sh reboot

We are done with the installing HyperVM in server, its now time to access its Web based Manager. For that, we need to use following URL.

https://ip-address>:8887 
or 
http://ip-address>:8888

If everything goes fine, it will open up Web based HyperVM manager like below picture and asks for Admin login details. Please provide Username “admin” and password “admin” to login into panel for the first time.

Install HyperVM in CentOSInstall HyperVM in CentOS

HyperVM Manager

Once you Log In, it will ask you to change the Admin password. Please change it and use that changed password from the next time.

Some more Important information about HyperVM as follows:

When we create a Container or VPS in HyperVM, it assigns an unique Container ID (CID) to every container and keeps all data in /vz directory.

  1. Container’s data : /vz/root and /vz/private
  2. Os Templates : /vz/template/cache
  3. Containers configuration file: /etc/sysconfig/vz-scripts/.conf
  4. HyperVM Services: service hypervm {start|stop|restart|condrestart|reload|status|fullstatus|graceful|help|configtest}
  5. OpenVZ services : service openvz {start|stop|restart}
  6. List all containers: vzlist -a
  7. Download link for Precreated templates: You can download precreated different OS templates from OpenVz Template.

That’s all with HyperVM installation using OpenVZ, there are so many features in HyperVM which help you to setup virtualization in your server environment. If you face any problem with setting up HyperVM in your Linux server or need any other assistance like backup, restoration, migration etc, you can simply contact us.

Stay connected with sfnews.com for more exciting and interesting tutorials in future. Do leave your comments and suggestions below in the comment box.

Install ‘PhpVirtualBox’ to Manage VirtualBox Virtual Machines via Web Browser in Linux

Install &-8216;PhpVirtualBox&-8217; to Manage VirtualBox Virtual Machines via Web Browser in Linux &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-28 18:43:08 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

Virtualization is one of the most discussed topic in the field of Linux and IT in general. In the list of 10 HOT IT Skills in demand Virtualization (Vmware) stands at the top of the list.

We will be taking you to a quick note of what virtualization is, several virtualization tools before a complete guide on downloading, installing and configuring Virtualbox and PhpVirtualBox which is a web based virtual box front end.

The download, installation and configuration of Virtualbox and PhpVirtualBox will follow for Debian and CentOS based Distributions.

What is Virtualization

Virtualization is the process of creating non-real (virtual) version of operating system, storage, network resource and hardware. Virtualization is achieved by creating virtual machines which powers an Operating System. A host physical server can host one or more virtual machine, which may power different OS (Windows, Linux, UNIX, BSD).

There are several virtualization tools available. A few of them are platform specific and rest of them are available to be use on any platform.

  1. Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 R2 – available for x86 and x86_64 bit platform. Support: Windows only.
  2. Q – open source virtualization tool available for windows, mac and Linux.
  3. Vmware – Available for Windows and Linux.
  4. VirtualBox – Open source application available for Windows, Mac, Linux and Solaris.
  5. Xen – Supports Windows as well as Linux distros.

What is VirtualBox

VirtualBox initially was released under proprietary License but later (2007) Oracle Corporation started releasing it under GNU General Public License. Written completely in C, C++ and Assembly Language it is available for Windows, OS X, Linux and Solaris.

VirtualBox is claimed to be the only professional virtualization solution that is freely available and is open source. It is able to support 64 bit guest OS as well as creating Snapshot of the virtual OS.

VirtualBox lets you run virtualised application along with real desktop Application. Moreover it can be configured to share host clipboards and folders. Special drivers are available for smooth switching between systems. It is available for X86 as well as X86_64 bit platform. High on feature and performance and low on resource is a big plus point of VirtualBox.

This article will walk through the installation and configuration of VirtualBox and PhpVirtualBox to manage virtual machines under RHEL/CentOS/Fedora and Debian/Ubuntu system.

Installation of VirtualBox and PhpVirtualBox in Linux

For this article, we will be using Minimal Installation of Debian and CentOS as platform of installation. All the Installation, configuration and examples are tested on Debian 8.0 and CentOS 7.1 Minimal.

1. Before installing VirtualBox and PhpVirtualBox, you need to updated system package database and install prerequisites such as Apache, PHP and other needed dependencies as shown below.

On Debian based Distributions

- apt-get update && apt-get upgrade && apt-get autoremove
- apt-get install apache2
- apt-get install php5 php5-common php-soap php5-gd
- apt-get install build-essential dkms unzip wget

After installing all above required packages, you can proceed further to add one of the following VirtualBox PPA lines to /etc/apt/sources.list file, according to your Linux distribution.

deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian raring contrib
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian quantal contrib
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian precise contrib
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian lucid contrib non-free
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian wheezy contrib
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian jessie contrib
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian squeeze contrib non-free

Next download and add Oracle public key using following commands.

- wget www.virtualbox.org/download/oracle_vbox.asc
- apt-key add oracle_vbox.asc

On RedHat based Distributions

- yum update && yum autoremove
- yum install httpd
- yum install php php-devel php-common php-soap php-gd
- yum groupinstall 'Development Tools' SDL kernel-devel kernel-headers dkms wget

After installing all above required packages, download Oracle public key and import into your system.

- wget www.virtualbox.org/download/oracle_vbox.asc
- rpm –import oracle_vbox.asc

2. Next, restart the Apache service with the help of following commands, as per your Linux distribution.

- /etc/init.d/apache2 restart				[On Older Debian based systems]
- /etc/init.d/httpd restart				[On Older RedHat based systems]

OR

- systemctl restart apache2.service			[On Newer Debian based systems]
- systemctl restart httpd.service			[On Newer RedHat based systems]

Point your browser to your Private IP Address or your loopback address, you should see your apache default testing page.

http://ip-address
OR
http://localhost

3. Now it’s time to install VirtualBox.

- apt-get install virtualbox-4.3		[On Debian based systems]
- yum install virtualbox-4.3   			[On RedHat based systems]

4. Next download and install PhpVirtualBox.

- wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/phpvirtualbox/files/phpvirtualbox-4.3-1.zip
- unzip phpvirtualbox-4.3-1.zip

5. Next, move the extracted ‘phpvirtualbox-4.3-1‘ folder to the default root folder of the http web server (/var/www/ or /var/www/html).

- mv phpvirtualbox-4.3-1 /var/www/html

6. Rename the directory ‘phpvirtualbox-4.3-1‘ to phpvb or anything, so that it is easy to point to them. Next there is a configuration file config.php-example under ‘phpvb‘ directory, rename it to config.php as shown below.

- mv /var/www/html/phpvb/config.php-example /var/www/html/phpvb/config.php

7. Create a new user account (or add an existing user) and add it to vboxusers group and change phpvb directory ownership to avi user.

- useradd avi
- passwd avi
- usermod -aG vboxusers avi
- chown -R avi:avi /var/www/html/phpvb

8. Now open ‘config.php‘ file and add newly created user and password.

- vi / var/www/html/phpvb/config.php
/* Username / Password for system user that runs VirtualBox */
var $username = 'avi';
var $password = 'avi123';

9. Now Download and install virtualbox extension.

- wget http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/4.3.12/Oracle_VM_VirtualBox_Extension_Pack-4.3.12-93733.vbox-extpack
- VboxManage extpack install Oracle_VM_VirtualBox_Extension_Pack-4.3.12-93733.vbox-extpack

10. Now start Virtualbox-websrv as the user ‘avi‘ defined in config file.

$ vboxwebsrv -H 127.0.0.1

11. Now point your browser to ip_where_phpvirtualbox_is_installed/phpvb or 127.0.0.1/phpvb, if it was installed on the native server.

The default username is admin
The default pasword is admin
PHPVirtualbox LoginPHPVirtualbox Login

PHPVirtualbox Login

If you get error similar to the below image. You might have to start certain services.

PHPVirtualbox LoginPhpVirtualBox Login Error

PhpVirtualBox Login Error

- /etc/init.d/virtualbox start
- /etc/init.d/vboxdrv  start
- /etc/init.d/vboxweb-service start

Now again try login and you will see the below interface.

PHPVirtualbox LoginPhpVirtualBox Dashboard

PhpVirtualBox Dashboard

You may install any OS in Virtual box. Click on New, give name and select architecture and version.

PHPVirtualbox LoginCreate New Virtual Machine

Create New Virtual Machine

Give the amount of RAM virtual OS may use.

PHPVirtualbox LoginAdd Virtual Machine RAM

Add Virtual Machine RAM

Add new virtual hard drive to new virtual machine.

PHPVirtualbox LoginAdd Hard Drive to VM

Add Hard Drive to VM

Select type of Hard Drive.

PHPVirtualbox LoginSelect VM Hard Drive Type

Select VM Hard Drive Type

Select type of storage disk allocation.

PHPVirtualbox LoginVM Storage Disk

VM Storage Disk

Choose size of Hard Drive and click create.

PHPVirtualbox LoginAdd Virtual Machine Size

Add Virtual Machine Size

You may see your Virtual disk is created and ready to host virtual OS.

PHPVirtualbox LoginNew Virtual Machine

New Virtual Machine

Click on storage and add virtual Image (iso), or select your machine physical CD Drive. Finally click start to start installing.

PHPVirtualbox LoginSelect VM Installation Media

Select VM Installation Media

Click on Network and select correct network Adapter.

PHPVirtualbox LoginSelect VM Network Adapter

Select VM Network Adapter

Click on console on the top right corner select desktop size and connect. If the console option is not highlighted you may have to enable it under SettingsDisplayRemote DisplayEnable Server and Click OK.

PHPVirtualbox LoginVM Console

VM Console

You may see the virtual OS in action.

PHPVirtualbox LoginVM Terminal in Action

VM Terminal in Action

You may Detach it by clicking ‘detach‘.

PHPVirtualbox LoginDetach VM

Detach VM

The booting and Rest of the Installation process is pretty simple as if you are installing on Local Machine.

PHPVirtualbox LoginVM Booting and Insallation

VM Booting and Insallation

Once installation is Finished, your virtual OS is ready to host anything virtually. Be it OS, Network, Device or anything else.

PHPVirtualbox LoginVM OS Information

Enjoy your local Virtual Server and Front-end PHPVirtualBox to access it. You may implement it in the production after a little more configuration.

That’s all from my side for now. Let me know if you liked the application or not also I will here to help you if you face any problem. Keep connected to sfnews. Bye!

Installing and Configuring Citrix Xenserver 6.5 – Part 1

Installing and Configuring Citrix Xenserver 6.5 &-8211; Part 1 &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-28 18:17:31 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

As computing devices quickly surpass the requirements of operating systems, it has increasingly become more efficient for organizations to invest/migrate to virtualized systems. Operating system virtualization technologies aren’t anything new but over the last several years they have become more and more popular as data centers look to provide more functionality in the same or less amounts of physical space. By simply leveraging un-used resources on powerful servers/workstations companies can effectively run multiple logical servers on one or several physical servers.

XenServer Installation Guide in LinuxXenServer Installation Guide in Linux

XenServer Installation and Configuration Guide – Part 1

Citrix offers such a solution, known as XenServer, which utilizes the popular Linux Xen hypervisor. The Xen hypervisor is referred to as a “bare-metal hypervisor” meaning that it is installed to the physical server and acts as a resource manager for all of the virtualized server instances that will be run on top of Xen.

This contrasts to systems such as Virtualbox which require a Linux/Mac/Windows operating system to be installed and then virtual machines created within the Virtualbox application. This type of hypervisor is generally referred to as a hosted hypervisor. Both types of hypervisors have their place and benefits but this particular article is going to look at the bare-metal hypervisor in XenServer.

In this 5-article Citrix Xenserver series, we will going to cover the following topics:

Part 1: Installation and Configuring XenServer 6.5

Update*: In May 2016, Citrix released the new version of the XenServer 7 platform.

This first article will walk through the process of installing and configuring Citrix XenServer. Future additions to this article will walk through adding virtual machine storage repositories, XenServer pooling, creating virtual machines on the XenServer, as well as managing XenServers with XenCenter and Xen Orchestra as discussed above series.

System Requirements

  1. XenServer 6.5 ISO : http://xenserver.org/open-source-virtualization-download.html
  2. Server capable of virtualization
    1. Hardware Compatibility List is here: http://hcl.xenserver.org/
    2. Many systems will work even if not listed but results may vary, use at your own risk.
  3. Minimum 2GB ram; 4GB or more recommended to run virtual machines
  4. Mimimum 1 64bit 1.5GHz cpu; 2GHz or more and multiple CPUs are suggested
  5. Harddrive space of at least 16GB; more required if virtual machines will be saved locally
  6. At least a 100mbps network card; multiple gigabit suggested

Test System Configuration

  1. 1 IBM X3850
    1. 4 hexcore 2.66 GHz CPUs
    2. 64gb ram
    3. 4 gigabit NIC cards
    4. 4 300GB SAS drives (overkill but it was all that was available)
  2. 24TB Dell PE5500E for storage of the virtual machine disks (Not necessary if enough local space exists on the XenServer)

All in all this server is primed to be a stellar XenServer so let’s begin the installation process.

Installation of Citrix Xenserver 6.5 Guide

1. The first step in the installation is to download the XenServer ISO file. This can easily be accomplished by visiting the link above or using the ‘wget‘ utility on a Linux system.

- wget -c http://downloadns.citrix.com.edgesuite.net/10175/XenServer-6.5.0-xenserver.org-install-cd.iso

Now burn the ISO to a CD or using ‘dd‘ to copy the ISO to a flash drive.

- dd if=XenServer-6.5.0-xenserver.org-install-cd.iso of=/path/to/usb/drive>

2. Now place the media into the system that XenServer will be installed and boot to that media. Upon successful boot the user should be greeted by the wonderful Citrix XenServer boot splash.

XenServer Installation Guide in LinuxXenServer Boot Menu

XenServer Boot Menu

3. At this point simply press enter to begin the booting process. This will boot the user into the XenServer installer. The first screen will ask the user to provide a language selection.

XenServer Installation Guide in LinuxSelect XenServer Installation Language

Select XenServer Installation Language

4. The next screen asks the user to confirm the reason for booting to this media as well as provide the option to load extra hardware drivers if needed. In this particular case, it is to install XenServer to the machine so it is safe to click “OK”.

XenServer Installation Guide in LinuxLoad XenServer Device Driver

Load XenServer Device Driver

5. The next prompt is the obligatory EULA (End User License Agreement). Feel free to read the whole thing, as your supposed to anyways right, otherwise using the keyboard arrows move the cursor over to the “Accept EULA” button and hit enter.

XenServer Installation Guide in LinuxAccept License Agreement

Accept License Agreement

6. The next screen requests the installation device. In this example the RAID setup on the server is where XenServer will be installed.

The RAID system is reflected as “sda – 556 GB [IBM ServeRAID-MR10k]” For this guide, thin provisioning is not necessary. Make sure the the asterisk ( * ) character is next to the hard drive selection to install XenServer and tab to the “OK” button.

XenServer Installation Guide in LinuxSelect XenServer Virtual Machine Storage

Select XenServer Virtual Machine Storage

7. The next screen will prompt the user for the location of the installation files. Since the installer was boot locally with a CD/DVD/USB, make sure to select the “Local Media” option.

XenServer Installation Guide in LinuxSelect XenServer Installation Source

Select XenServer Installation Source

8. The next step allows for the installation of Supplemental Packs (SP) at the time of install. For this guide, none of the supplemental packs available will be installed at this point but will be covered later once XenServer is up and running.

XenServer Installation Guide in LinuxSelect Supplemental Packs

Select Supplemental Packs

9. The next screen will ask if the user wishes to verify that the installer media is not corrupt. Generally this is a good idea but is a personal choice. All in all the verification on this test server took about 3 minutes from a CD.

XenServer Installation Guide in LinuxVerify XenServer Installation Media

Verify XenServer Installation Media

XenServer Installation Guide in LinuxChecking Base Pack

Checking Base Pack

XenServer Installation Guide in LinuxVerification Successful

Verification Successful

Installing XenServer 6.5 Patches with Local Media and Remotely – Part 2

Installing XenServer 6.5 Patches with Local Media and Remotely &-8211; Part 2 &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-28 18:16:21 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

Patching a XenServer install is a crucial task to ensure security updates are applied to vulnerable XenServer installs. While in theory the hypervisor is secure from the virtual machines it supports, there are still some potential issues that could happen and Citrix, as well as the rest of the open source community, do their best to provide code updates for these vulnerabilities as they are discovered.

Update: In May 2016, Citrix released the new version of the XenServer 7 platform. For installation follow: Fresh Installation of XenServer 7.

Install XenServer Patches in LinuxInstall XenServer Patches in Linux

Install XenServer Patches in Linux – Part 2

That being said, these updates aren’t applied automatically by default and require administrator interaction. Patches also aren’t always security issues. Many times patches will provide increased functionality to the virtual machines hosted on the XenServer. Applying these updates is typically very easy and straight forward and can be done remotely or with local media (local to the XenServer).

While this article is going to walk through applying patches to one XenServer, it is important to note that in the event that multiple pooled XenServers need updated, tools exist to allow the pool master to push the updates out to all of the other XenServers in the pool!

Let’s begin the process of updating a single XenServer by means of local media. Local in this instance means that the administrator has put the update files onto a CD/DVD/USB or similar device and will physically connect this media to the XenServer needing updated.

The first step in this whole process is to obtain the patches. Publicly available patches can be obtained from the following URL:

  1. http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX138115

This guide is going to walk through installing the XenServer 6.5 SP1 patch both using local media as well as remotely sending the update files to the server and then updating remotely.

The patch files are located here: http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX142355

This supplemental pack contains a lot of the patches already put out for XenServer 6.5. It is important to note Citrix’s notes about any patch as many patches require other patches be installed BEFORE! The only prerequisite for this patch is that XenServer 6.5 be installed (which should be covered already).

The file can be downloaded via http or via the wget tool.

- wget -c http://downloadns.citrix.com.edgesuite.net/10340/XS65ESP1.zip

Installing Patches with Local Media

Once the file is downloaded, the contents of the zip file need to be extracted. This can be accomplished with gui tools or via the command line using the ‘unzip‘ tool.

- unzip XS65ESP1.zip

Upon successful completion, two files should now exist in the current working directory. The one of importance will be the file with the extension ‘.xsupdate‘.

Install XenServer Patches in LinuxUnpack Xen Patch Update

Unpack Xen Patch Update

Now the file ‘XS54ESP1.xsupdate‘ needs to be copied to the installation media. Once the file has been transferred to the media, connect the media to the XenServer in need of the patch.

At this point a monitor and keyboard connected to the server will be needed to complete the update process. Upon connecting a monitor to the XenServer, the XenServer control panel page should be visible. Scroll down to the ‘Local Command Shell‘ selection and hit enter.

Install XenServer Patches in LinuxXen Server Local Command Shell

Xen Server Local Command Shell

This will prompt the user for the XenServer root user password and upon successfully entering that password, the user will be in a command prompt within the XenServer. At this point, the local media will need to be mounted to be accessible to XenServer. In order to do this, the name of the block device needs to be determined using the ‘fdisk‘ utility.

- fdisk -l
Install XenServer Patches in LinuxFind Media Disk

Find Media Disk

From this output the device name of the USB device plugged into the XenServer can be determined as ‘/dev/sdb1‘ and this is what will need to be mounted in order to access the update file. Mounting this device can be accomplished using the ‘mount‘ utility.

- mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt
Install XenServer Patches in LinuxMount Device

Mount Device

Assuming that the system didn’t throw out any errors, the USB device should now be mounted to the ‘/mnt‘ directory. Change to this directory and make sure that the update file is indeed showing up in this directory.

- cd /mnt
- ls
Install XenServer Patches in LinuxCheck Mounted Device

Check Mounted Device

At this point, the update file is accessible to the server and ready to be installed using the ‘xe‘ command. The first thing to do is prepare the patch file and obtain the UUID of the patch file with the ‘xe patch-upload‘ command. This step is important and must be done!

- xe patch-upload file-name=XS65ESP1.xsupdate
Install XenServer Patches in LinuxPrepare XenServer Patch File

Prepare XenServer Patch File

The box in red above is the output from the above command and will be needed when ready to actually install the patch to the XenServer system. Now the UUID of the XenServer itself is needed and can be determined again by passing arguments to the ‘xe‘ command.

- xe host-list
Install XenServer Patches in LinuxCheck XenServer UUID

Check XenServer UUID

Again the box in red is the UUID value that will be needed in order to apply the patch to this particular XenServer. At this point all of the necessary commands have been run and the UUID’s determine.

Once more using the ‘xe‘ command with different arguments, XenServer will be instructed to install the supplemental pack to this local system.

- xe patch-apply uuid=7f2e4a3a-4098-4a71-84ff-b0ba919723c7 host-uuid=be0eeb41-7f50-447d-8561-343edde9fad2
Install XenServer Patches in LinuxApply Patch to XenServer

Apply Patch to XenServer

At this point, the system will begin installing the update but will show nothing more than a flashing cursor until the process is completed. Once the system returns to a command prompt, the system can be checked to confirm that the patch was indeed installed again using the ‘xe’ command with different arguments.

- xe patch-list | grep -i sp1

This command will list all patches applied and then pipe that output into grep which will search for the string ‘sp1‘ regardless of case. If nothing is returned, then the patch likely did not install successfully.

Install XenServer Patches in LinuxList XenServer Installed Patches

List XenServer Installed Patches

If the command returns output similar to the above screen-shot, then the supplemental pack was installed successfully!

XenServer Network (LACP Bond, VLAN and Bonding) Configuration – Part 3

XenServer Network (LACP Bond, VLAN and Bonding) Configuration &-8211; Part 3 &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-28 18:12:56 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

In the third part of this series, the configuration of networking in XenServer will be discussed. Networking in XenServer is often a little difficult to grasp at first but is actually quite simple. The first task before configuration is to step back and understand all of the new terminology used by XenServer in reference to networking.

Update: In May 2016, Citrix released the new version of the XenServer 7 platform. For installation follow: Fresh Installation of XenServer 7.

XenServer Network ConfigurationXenServer Network Configuration

XenServer Network Configuration – Part 3

Read Also:

Installing and Configuring XenServer – Part 1

Installing XenServer Important Patches – Part 2

XenServer, as a virtualization platform, introduces virtual interfaces for the guests that have to be mapped to physical interfaces or networks on the actual physical network that the XenServer itself is connected. This mapping is what often leads to confusion. So let’s take a look at these new terms and how they allow guests to interact with the actual physical network that is connected to the XenServer.

XenServer introduces three new terms when it comes to networking. The first of which is generally the easiest to understand as it is simply a variant of the traditional Network Interface Card (NIC). In XenServer, the actual physical NICs of a system are often referenced as Physical Interfaces or its acronym of ‘PIF‘.

The second term that XenServer will use is what is known as a Virtual Interface or more commonly its acronym of ‘VIF‘. These Virtual Interfaces represent the Network Interface Cards that will be attached to the guests (virtual machines) running on the XenServer.

The third term that is often used when talking about XenServer networking is the Xen Bridge whose acronym will vary but typically will be represented as ‘xenbr0‘. These bridges are created at the time of the XenServer install and one is created per each PIF (Physical Interface) that is found during the installation. These bridges are used to allow VIF (Virtual Interfaces) to communicate through PIF (Physical Interfaces).

Now that the terminology is out of the way, there are some special caveats when working with virtual interfaces. Since the virtual interfaces will be used to connect guests to networks, it is important to understand what is needed from these interfaces. One caveat that will cause individuals lots of grief is when a guest needs connectivity to two real networks from a XenServer.

In order to accomplish this task the virtual machine (guest) will need to have 2 VIFs (virtual interfaces) connected to it so that each can be on the appropriate network. This will require some manipulation of the guest’s routing table as well to ensure that guests communicate out the proper interfaces.

Another caveat with virtual interfaces is that each one needs its own Media Access Control address or MAC address. XenServer can automatically assign a randomly generated MAC address or an administrator can manually assign them as well.

The last couple of paragraphs have greatly condensed a lot of the networking concepts within XenServer. Sometimes reading isn’t nearly as easy to comprehend as seeing drawings or actually configuring.

Below is a diagram that attempts to cover the concepts introduced before the actual configuration of XenServer networking.

XenServer Network ConfigurationXenServer Networking Diagram

Figure 1 introduces the major terms involved in XenServer networking. Now that the terminology is out of the way, it is time to begin configuring the physical interfaces to allow the XenServer host and guests connectivity.

XenServer typically requires an interface for management traffic and an interface for guest traffic, however, this guide will be showing how to setup bonds for redundancy as well as link aggregation.

As a result this guide will assume the following about the physical wiring of the XenServer host:

  1. The server has four total PIFs (Physical Interfaces).
  2. The first two PIF interfaces are wired to a switch and will be aggregated via LACP (guide will cover this on the XenServer side but LACP requires the switch side be configured as well).
  3. The remaining two PIF interfaces are wired to a switch and are on the same network and will be used for management traffic as well as storage traffic.
  4. Remaining PIF interfaces will be setup in an active/failover setup.