Gradle Tutorial

Discuss Gradle

Discuss Gradle &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-15 08:32:07 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

Discuss Gradle


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Gradle is an open source, advanced general purpose build management system. It is built on ANT, Maven, and lvy repositories. It supports Groovy based Domain Specific Language (DSL) over XML. This tutorial explains how you can use Gradle as a build automation tool for Java as well as Groovy projects.




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Gradle – Home

Gradle – Overview

Gradle – Installation

Gradle – Build Script

Gradle – Tasks

Gradle – Dependency Management

Gradle – Plugins

Gradle – Running a Build

Gradle – Build a JAVA Project

Gradle – Build a Groovy Project

Gradle – Testing

Gradle – Multi-Project Build

Gradle – Deployment

Gradle – Eclipse Integration

Gradle &-8211; Quick Guide

Gradle &-8211; Useful Resources

Gradle &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who

Gradle – Useful Resources

Gradle &-8211; Useful Resources &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-15 08:32:05 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

Gradle &-8211; Useful Resources


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The following resources contain additional information on Gradle. Please use them to get more in-depth knowledge on this.

Useful Links on Gradle

Useful Books on Gradle

  • Gradle Beyond the Basics
  • Introducing Gradle
  • Building and Testing with Gradle

To enlist your site on this page, please drop an email to [email protected]



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Gradle – Home

Gradle – Overview

Gradle – Installation

Gradle – Build Script

Gradle – Tasks

Gradle – Dependency Management

Gradle – Plugins

Gradle – Running a Build

Gradle – Build a JAVA Project

Gradle – Build a Groovy Project

Gradle – Testing

Gradle – Multi-Project Build

Gradle – Deployment

Gradle – Eclipse Integration

Gradle &-8211; Quick Guide

Gradle &-8211; Useful Resources

Gradle &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who

Gradle – Quick Guide

Gradle &-8211; Quick Guide &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-15 08:32:02 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

Gradle &-8211; Quick Guide


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Gradle &-8211; Overview

&-8220;Gradle is an open source build automation system&-8221;

Ant and Maven shared considerable success in the JAVA marketplace. Ant was the first build tool released in 2000 and it is developed based on procedural programming idea. Later it is improved with an ability to accept plug-ins and dependency management over the network with the help on Apache-IVY. Main drawback is XML as a format to write build scripts, being hierarchical is not good for procedural programming, and XML tends to become unmanageably big.

Maven is introduced in 2004. It comes with lots improvement then ANT. It changes its structure and it continues using XML for writing build specifications. Maven relies on the conventions and able to download the dependencies over the network. The main benefits of maven is its life cycle. While following the same life cycle for multiple projects continuously. This comes a cost of flexibility. Maven also faces some problems in dependency management. It does not handle well conflicts between versions of the same library and complex customized build scripts are actually harder to write in maven than in ANT.

Finally Gradle came into picture in 2012. Gradle carries some efficient features from both the tools.

Features of Gradle

The following is the list of features that Gradle provides.

  • Declarative builds and build-by-convention − Gradle is available with separate Domain Specific Language (DSL) based on Groovy language. Gradle provides a declarative language elements. Those elements also provides build-by-convention support for Java, Groovy, OSGI, Web and Scala.

  • Language for dependency based programming − The declarative language lies on a top of a general purpose task graph, which you can fully leverage in your build.

  • Structure your build − Gradle finally allows you to apply common design principles
    to your build. It will give you a perfect structure for build, SO that you can design well-structured and easily maintained, comprehensible build.

  • Deep API − Using this API it allows you to monitor and customize its configuration
    and execution behavior to its core.

  • Gradle scales − Gradle can easily increases their productivity, from simple and single project builds to huge enterprise multi-project builds.

  • Multi-project builds − Gradle supports for multi-project builds and it supports partial builds. If you build a subproject Gradle takes care of building all the subprojects that it depends on.

  • Different ways to manage your builds − Gradle supports different strategies to manage your dependencies.

  • Gradle is the first build integration tool − Gradle fully supported for your ANT
    tasks, Maven and lvy repository infrastructure for publishing and retrieving dependencies. Gradle also provides a converter for turning a Maven pom.xml to Gradle script.

  • Ease of migration − Gradle can easily adapt to any structure you have. Therefore
    you can always develop your Gradle build in the same branch where you can build live script.

  • Gradle Wrapper − Gradle Wrapper allows you to execute Gradle builds on machines where Gradle is not installed. This is useful for continuous integration of servers.

  • Free open source − Gradle is an open source project, and licensed under the Apache
    Software License (ASL).

  • Groovy − Gradle&-8217;s build script are written in Groovy. The whole design of Gradle is
    oriented towards being used as a language, not as a rigid framework. And Groovy allows you to write your own script with some abstractions. The whole Gradle API is fully designed in Groovy language.

Why Groovy?

The complete Gradle API is designed using Groovy language. This is an advantage of an internal DSL over XML. Gradle is general purpose build tool at its core; its main focus is Java projects. In such projects, the team members will be very familiar with Java and it is better that a build should be as transparent as possible to all team members.

Languages like Python, Groovy or Ruby are better for build framework. Why Groovy was chosen is, because it offers by far the greatest transparency for people using Java. The base syntax of Groovy is same as Java. Groovy provides much more on top of that.

Gradle &-8211; Installation

Gradle is a build tool which is build based on java. There are some prerequisites that to be installed before installing the Gradle frame work.

Prerequisites

JDK and Groovy are the prerequisites for Gradle installation.

  • Gradle requires JDK version 6 or later to be installed in your system. It uses the JDK libraries which is installed and sets to the JAVA_HOME environmental variable.

  • Gradle carries its own Groovy library, therefore, we do no need to install Groovy explicitly. If it is installed, that is ignored by Gradle.

Following are the steps to install Gradle in your system.

Step 1 − Verify JAVA Installation

First of all, you need to have Java Software Development Kit (SDK) installed on your system. To verify this, execute Java –version command in any of the platform you are working on.

In Windows −

Execute the following command to verify Java installation. I have installed JDK 1.8 in my system.

C:> java - version

Output −

java version "1.8.0_66"
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_66-b18)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.66-b18, mixed mode)

In Linux −

Execute the following command to verify Java installation. I have installed JDK 1.8 in my system.

$ java - version

Output −

java version "1.8.0_66"
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_66-b18)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.66-b18, mixed mode)

We assume the readers of this tutorial have Java SDK version 1.8.0_66 installed on their system.

Step 2 − Download Gradle Build File

Download the latest version of Gradle from the Download Gradle link. In the reference page, click on the Complete Distribution link. This step is common for any platform. For this you will get the complete distribution file into your Downloads folder.

Step 3 − Set Up Environment for Gradle

Setting up environment means that we have to extract the distribution file, copy the library files into proper location. Setting up GRADLE_HOME and PATH environmental variables.

This step is platform dependent.

In Windows −

Extract the downloaded zip file named gradle-2.11-all.zip and copy the distribution files from Downloadsgradle-2.11 to C:gradle location.

After that add the C:gradle and C:gradlebin directories to the GRADLE_HOME and PATH system variables. Follow the given instruction that is right click on my computers -> click on properties -> advanced system settings -> click on environmental variables. There you will find a dialog box for creating and editing system variables. Click on new button for creating GRADLE_HOME variable (follow the left side screenshot). Click on Edit for editing the existing Path system variable (follow the right side screenshot). Follow the below given screenshots.

Setup Environment for Gradle

In Linux −

Extract the downloaded zip file named gradle-2.11-all.zip then you will find an extracted file named gradle-2.11.

You can use the following to move the distribution files from Downloads/gradle-2.11/ to /opt/gradle/ location. Execute this operation from the Downloads directory.

$ sudo mv gradle-2.11 /opt/gradle

Edit the ~/.bashrc file and paste the following content to it and save it.

export ORIENT_HOME = /opt/gradle
export PATH = $PATH:

Execute the following command to execute ~/.bashrc file.

$ source ~/.bashrc

Step 4: Verify the Gradle installation

In windows:

You can execute the following command in command prompt.

C:> gradle –v

Output: there you will find the Gradle version.

------------------------------------------------------------
Gradle 2.11
------------------------------------------------------------

Build time: 2016-02-08 07:59:16 UTC
Build number: none
Revision: 584db1c7c90bdd1de1d1c4c51271c665bfcba978
Groovy: 2.4.4

Ant: Apache Ant(TM) version 1.9.3 compiled on December 23 2013
JVM: 1.7.0_60 (Oracle Corporation 24.60-b09)
OS: Windows 8.1 6.3 amd64

In Linux:

You can execute the following command in terminal.

$ gradle –v

Output: there you will find the Gradle version.

------------------------------------------------------------
Gradle 2.11
------------------------------------------------------------

Build time: 2016-02-08 07:59:16 UTC
Build number: none
Revision: 584db1c7c90bdd1de1d1c4c51271c665bfcba978

Groovy: 2.4.4
Ant: Apache Ant(TM) version 1.9.3 compiled on December 23 2013
JVM: 1.7.0_60 (Oracle Corporation 24.60-b09)
OS: Linux 3.13.0-74-generic amd64 

Gradle &-8211; Build Script

Gradle builds a script file for handling two things; one is projects and another one is tasks. Every Gradle build represents one or more projects. A project represents a library JAR or a web application or it might represent a ZIP that assembled from the JARs produced by other projects. In simple words, a project is made up of different tasks. A task means a piece of work which a build performs. A task might be compiling some classes, creating a JAR, generating Javadoc, or publishing some archives to a repository.

Gradle uses Groovy language for writing scripts.

Writing Build Script

Gradle provides a Domain Specific Language (DSL), for describing builds. This uses the Groovy language to make it easier to describe a build. Each build script of Gradle is encoded using UTF-8, saved offline and named as build.gradle.

build.gradle

We are describing about tasks and projects by using a Groovy script. You can run a Gradle build using the Gradle command. This command looks for a file called build.gradle. Take a look at the following example which represents a small script that prints tutorialspoint. Copy and save the following script into a file named build.gradle. This build script defines a task name hello, which is used to print tutorialspoint string.

task hello {
   doLast {
      println 'tutorialspoint'
   }
}

Execute the following command in the command prompt. It executes the above script. You should execute this, where the build.gradle file is stored.

C:> gradle –q hello

Output:

tutorialspoint

If you think task works similar to ANT’s target, then that’s right − Gradle task is equivalent to ANT target.

You can simplify this hello task by specifying a shortcut (represents a symbol ) to the doLast statement. If you add this shortcut to the above task hello it will look like the following script.

task hello  {
   println 'tutorialspoint'
}

As same above you can execute the above script using gradle –q hello command.

The Grade script mainly used two real Objects, one is Project Object and another one is Script Object.

Project Object − Each script describes about one or multiple projects. While in the execution this scripts configures the Project Object. You can call some methods and use property in your build script which are delegated to the Project Object.

Script Object − Gradle taken script code into classes which implements Script Interface and then executes. This means that of all the properties and methods declared by the script interface are available in your script.

The following table defines the list of standard project properties. All these properties are available in your build script.

Sr. No. Name Type Default Value
1 project Project The Project instance
2 name String The name of the project directory.
3 path String The absolute path of the project.
4 description String A description for the project.
5 projectDir File The directory containing the build script.
6 buildDir File projectDir/build
7 group Object Unspecified
8 version Object Unspecified
9 ant AntBuilder An AntBuilder instance

Groovy Basics

Gradle build scripts use the full length Groovy API. As a startup, take a look at the following examples.

The following example explains about converting a string to upper case.

Copy and save the below given code into build.gradle file.

task upper  {
   String expString = 'TUTORIALS point'
   println "Original: " + expString
   println "Upper case: " + expString.toUpperCase()
}

Execute the following command in the command prompt. It executes the above given script. You should execute this, where the build.gradle file is stored.

C:> gradle –q upper

Output:

Original: TUTORIALS point
Upper case: TUTORIALS POINT

The following example explains about printing the value of an implicit parameter ($it) for 4 times.

Copy and save the following code into build.gradle file.

task count  {
   4.times { 
      print "$it " 
   }
}

Execute the following command in the command prompt. It executes the above given script. You should execute this, where the build.gradle file is stored.

$ gradle –q count

Output:

0 1 2 3

Groovy language provides plenty of features in those some important features are discussed below.

Groovy JDK Methods

Groovy adds lots of useful methods to the standard Java classes. For example, Iterable API from JDK implements an each() method which iterates over the elements of the Iterable Interface.

Copy and save the following code into build.gradle file.

task groovyJDK  {
   String myName = "Marc";
   myName.each() { 
      println "${it}" 
   };
}

Execute the following command in the command prompt. It executes the above given script. You should execute this, where the build.gradle file stores.

C:> gradle –q groovyJDK

Output:

M
a
r
c

Property Accessors

You can automatically accesses appropriate getter and setter methods of a particular property by specifying its reference.

The following snippet defines the syntaxes of getter and setter methods of a property buildDir.

// Using a getter method
println project.buildDir
println getProject().getBuildDir()

// Using a setter method
project.buildDir = 'target'
getProject().setBuildDir('target')

Optional Parentheses on Method Calls

Groovy contains a special feature in methods calling that is the parentheses are optional for method calling. This feature applies to Gradle scripting as well.

Take a look at the following syntax. That defines a method calling systemProperty of test object.

test.systemProperty 'some.prop', 'value'
test.systemProperty('some.prop', 'value')

Closure as the Last Parameter of the Method

Gradle DSL uses closures in many places. Where the last parameter of a method is a closure, you can place the closure after the method call.

The following snippet defines the syntaxes Closures use as repositories() method parameters.

repositories {
   println "in a closure"
}
repositories() { 
   println "in a closure" 
}
repositories({ println "in a closure" })

Default Imports

Gradle automatically adds a set of import statements to the Gradle scripts. The following list shows you the default import packages to the Gradle script.

import org.gradle.*
import org.gradle.api.*
import org.gradle.api.artifacts.*
import org.gradle.api.artifacts.cache.*
import org.gradle.api.artifacts.component.*
import org.gradle.api.artifacts.dsl.*
import org.gradle.api.artifacts.ivy.*
import org.gradle.api.artifacts.maven.*
import org.gradle.api.artifacts.query.*
import org.gradle.api.artifacts.repositories.*
import org.gradle.api.artifacts.result.*
import org.gradle.api.component.*
import org.gradle.api.credentials.*
import org.gradle.api.distribution.*
import org.gradle.api.distribution.plugins.*
import org.gradle.api.dsl.*
import org.gradle.api.execution.*
import org.gradle.api.file.*
import org.gradle.api.initialization.*
import org.gradle.api.initialization.dsl.*
import org.gradle.api.invocation.*
import org.gradle.api.java.archives.*
import org.gradle.api.logging.*
import org.gradle.api.plugins.*
import org.gradle.api.plugins.announce.*
import org.gradle.api.plugins.antlr.*
import org.gradle.api.plugins.buildcomparison.gradle.*
import org.gradle.api.plugins.jetty.*
import org.gradle.api.plugins.osgi.*
import org.gradle.api.plugins.quality.*
import org.gradle.api.plugins.scala.*
import org.gradle.api.plugins.sonar.*
import org.gradle.api.plugins.sonar.model.*
import org.gradle.api.publish.*
import org.gradle.api.publish.ivy.*
import org.gradle.api.publish.ivy.plugins.*
import org.gradle.api.publish.ivy.tasks.*
import org.gradle.api.publish.maven.*
import org.gradle.api.publish.maven.plugins.*
import org.gradle.api.publish.maven.tasks.*
import org.gradle.api.publish.plugins.*
import org.gradle.api.reporting.*
import org.gradle.api.reporting.components.*
import org.gradle.api.reporting.dependencies.*
import org.gradle.api.reporting.model.*
import org.gradle.api.reporting.plugins.*
import org.gradle.api.resources.*
import org.gradle.api.specs.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.ant.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.application.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.bundling.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.compile.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.diagnostics.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.incremental.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.javadoc.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.scala.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.testing.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.testing.junit.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.testing.testng.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.util.*
import org.gradle.api.tasks.wrapper.*
import org.gradle.authentication.*
import org.gradle.authentication.http.*
import org.gradle.buildinit.plugins.*
import org.gradle.buildinit.tasks.*
import org.gradle.external.javadoc.*
import org.gradle.ide.cdt.*
import org.gradle.ide.cdt.tasks.*
import org.gradle.ide.visualstudio.*
import org.gradle.ide.visualstudio.plugins.*
import org.gradle.ide.visualstudio.tasks.*
import org.gradle.ivy.*
import org.gradle.jvm.*
import org.gradle.jvm.application.scripts.*
import org.gradle.jvm.application.tasks.*
import org.gradle.jvm.platform.*
import org.gradle.jvm.plugins.*
import org.gradle.jvm.tasks.*
import org.gradle.jvm.tasks.api.*
import org.gradle.jvm.test.*
import org.gradle.jvm.toolchain.*
import org.gradle.language.assembler.*
import org.gradle.language.assembler.plugins.*
import org.gradle.language.assembler.tasks.*
import org.gradle.language.base.*
import org.gradle.language.base.artifact.*
import org.gradle.language.base.plugins.*
import org.gradle.language.base.sources.*
import org.gradle.language.c.*
import org.gradle.language.c.plugins.*
import org.gradle.language.c.tasks.*
import org.gradle.language.coffeescript.*
import org.gradle.language.cpp.*
import org.gradle.language.cpp.plugins.*
import org.gradle.language.cpp.tasks.*
import org.gradle.language.java.*
import org.gradle.language.java.artifact.*
import org.gradle.language.java.plugins.*
import org.gradle.language.java.tasks.*
import org.gradle.language.javascript.*
import org.gradle.language.jvm.*
import org.gradle.language.jvm.plugins.*
import org.gradle.language.jvm.tasks.*
import org.gradle.language.nativeplatform.*
import org.gradle.language.nativeplatform.tasks.*
import org.gradle.language.objectivec.*
import org.gradle.language.objectivec.plugins.*
import org.gradle.language.objectivec.tasks.*
import org.gradle.language.objectivecpp.*
import org.gradle.language.objectivecpp.plugins.*
import org.gradle.language.objectivecpp.tasks.*
import org.gradle.language.rc.*
import org.gradle.language.rc.plugins.*
import org.gradle.language.rc.tasks.*
import org.gradle.language.routes.*
import org.gradle.language.scala.*
import org.gradle.language.scala.plugins.*
import org.gradle.language.scala.tasks.*
import org.gradle.language.scala.toolchain.*
import org.gradle.language.twirl.*
import org.gradle.maven.*
import org.gradle.model.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.platform.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.plugins.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.tasks.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.test.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.test.cunit.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.test.cunit.plugins.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.test.cunit.tasks.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.test.googletest.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.test.googletest.plugins.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.test.plugins.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.test.tasks.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.toolchain.*
import org.gradle.nativeplatform.toolchain.plugins.*
import org.gradle.platform.base.*
import org.gradle.platform.base.binary
import org.gradle.platform.base.component.*
import org.gradle.platform.base.plugins.*
import org.gradle.platform.base.test.*
import org.gradle.play.*
import org.gradle.play.distribution.*
import org.gradle.play.platform.*
import org.gradle.play.plugins.*
import org.gradle.play.tasks.*
import org.gradle.play.toolchain.*
import org.gradle.plugin.use.*
import org.gradle.plugins.ear.*
import org.gradle.plugins.ear.descriptor.*
import org.gradle.plugins.ide.api.*
import org.gradle.plugins.ide.eclipse.*
import org.gradle.plugins.ide.idea.*
import org.gradle.plugins.javascript.base.*
import org.gradle.plugins.javascript.coffeescript.*
import org.gradle.plugins.javascript.envjs.*
import org.gradle.plugins.javascript.envjs.browser.*
import org.gradle.plugins.javascript.envjs.http.*
import org.gradle.plugins.javascript.envjs.http.simple.*
import org.gradle.plugins.javascript.jshint.*
import org.gradle.plugins.javascript.rhino.*
import org.gradle.plugins.javascript.rhino.worker.*
import org.gradle.plugins.signing.*
import org.gradle.plugins.signing.signatory.*
import org.gradle.plugins.signing.signatory.pgp.*
import org.gradle.plugins.signing.type.*
import org.gradle.plugins.signing.type.pgp.*
import org.gradle.process.*
import org.gradle.sonar.runner.*
import org.gradle.sonar.runner.plugins.*
import org.gradle.sonar.runner.tasks.*
import org.gradle.testing.jacoco.plugins.*
import org.gradle.testing.jacoco.tasks.*
import org.gradle.testkit.runner.*
import org.gradle.util.*

Gradle &-8211; Tasks

Gradle build script describes about one or more Projects. Each project is made up of different tasks. A task is a piece of work which a build performs. The task might be compiling some classes, storing class files into separate target folder, creating JAR, generating Javadoc, or publishing some achieves to a repositories.

This chapter explains about what is task and how to generate and execute a task.

Defining Tasks

Task is a keyword which is used to define a task into build script. Take a look into the following example which represents a task named hello that prints tutorialspoint. Copy and save the following script into a file named build.gradle. This build script defines a task name hello which is used to print tutorialspoint string.

task hello {
   doLast {
      println 'tutorialspoint'
   }
}

Execute the following command in the command prompt. It executes the above script. You should execute this where the build.gradle file is stored.

C:> gradle –q hello

Output:

tutorialspoint

You can simplify this hello task by specifying a shortcut (represents a symbol ) to the doLast statement. If you add this shortcut to the above task hello it will look like the following script.

task hello  {
   println 'tutorialspoint'
}

You can execute the above script using gradle –q hello command.

Here are some variations in defining a task, take a look at it. The following example defines a task hello.

Copy and save the following code into build.gradle file.

task (hello)  {
   println "tutorialspoint"
}

Execute the following command in the command prompt. It executes the above given script. You should execute this, where the build.gradle file stores.

C:> gradle –q hello

Output:

tutorialspoint

You can also use strings for the task names. Take a look at the same hello example. Here we will use String as task.

Copy and save the following code into build.gradle file.

task('hello')  {
   println "tutorialspoint"
}

Execute the following command in the command prompt. It executes the above given script. You should execute this, where the build.gradle file stores.

C:> gradle –q hello

Output:

tutorialspoint

You can also use alternative syntax for defining a task. That is using create() method to defining a task. Take a look into the same hello example given below.

Copy and save the below given code into build.gradle file.

tasks.create(name: 'hello')  {
   println "tutorialspoint"
}

Execute the following command in the command prompt. It executes the above given script. You should execute this, where the build.gradle file stores.

C:> gradle –q hello

Output:

tutorialspoint

Locating Tasks

If you want to locate tasks that you defined in the build file, then you have to use respective standard project properties. That means each task is available as a property of the project, using the task name as the property name.

Take a look into the following code that accessing tasks as properties.

Copy and save the below given code into build.gradle file.

task hello

println hello.name
println project.hello.name

Execute the following command in the command prompt. It executes the above given script. You should execute this, where the build.gradle file stores.

C:> gradle –q hello

Output:

hello
hello

You can also use all the properties through the tasks collection.

Copy and save the following code into build.gradle file.

task hello

println tasks.hello.name
println tasks['hello'].name

Execute the following command in the command prompt. It executes the above given script. You should execute this, where the build.gradle file stores.

C:> gradle –q hello

Output:

hello
hello

You can also access the task&-8217;s path using the tasks. For this you can call the getByPath() method with a task name, or a relative path, or an absolute path.

Copy and save the below given code into build.gradle file.

project(':projectA') {
   task hello
}
task hello

println tasks.getByPath('hello').path
println tasks.getByPath(':hello').path
println tasks.getByPath('projectA:hello').path
println tasks.getByPath(':projectA:hello').path

Execute the following command in the command prompt. It executes the above given script. You should execute this, where the build.gradle file stores.

C:> gradle –q hello

Output:

:hello
:hello
:projectA:hello
:projectA:hello

Adding Dependencies to Tasks

You can make a task is dependent on another task that means when one task is done then only other task will start. Each task is differentiate with the task name. Collection of task names is referred by its tasks collection. To refer to a task in another project, you should use path of the project as a prefix to the respective task name.

The following example which adds a dependency from taskX to taskY.

Copy and save the below given code into build.gradle file. Take a look into the following code.

task taskX  {
   println 'taskX'
}
task taskY(dependsOn: 'taskX')  {
   println "taskY"
}

Execute the following command in the command prompt. It executes the above given script. You should execute this, where the build.gradle file stores.

C:> gradle –q taskY

Output:

taskX
taskY

The above example is adding dependency on task by using its names. There is another way to achieve task dependency that is define the dependency using a Task object.

Let us take the same example of taskY being dependent on taskX but we are using task objects instead of task reference names.

Copy and save the following code into build.gradle file.

task taskY  {
   println 'taskY'
}
task taskX  {
   println 'taskX'
}
taskY.dependsOn taskX

Execute the following command in the command prompt. You should execute this where the build.gradle file is stored.

C:> gradle –q taskY

Output:

taskX
taskY

The above example is adding dependency on task by using its names. There is another way to achieve task dependency that is define dependency using a Task object.

Here we take the same example that taskY is depend on taskX but we are using task objects instead of task references names. Take a look into it.

Copy and save the below given code into build.gradle file. Take a look into the following code.

task taskX  {
   println 'taskX'
}
taskX.dependsOn {
   tasks.findAll { 
      task → task.name.startsWith('lib') 
   }
}
task lib1  {
   println 'lib1'
}
task lib2  {
   println 'lib2'
}
task notALib  {
   println 'notALib'
}

Execute the following command in the command prompt. It executes the above given script. You should execute this, where the build.gradle file stores.

C:> gradle –q taskX

Output:

lib1
lib2
taskX

Adding a Description to a Task

You can add a description to your task. This description is displayed when executing Gradle tasks. This is possible by using the description keyword.

Copy and save the following code into build.gradle file. Take a look into the following
code.

task copy(type: Copy) {
   description 'Copies the resource directory to the target directory.'
   from 'resources'
   into 'target'
   include('**/*.txt', '**/*.xml', '**/*.properties')
   println("description applied")
}

Execute the following command in the command prompt. You should execute this where the build.gradle file is stored.

C:> gradle –q copy

If the command is executed successfully, you will get the following output.

description applied

Skipping Tasks

Skipping tasks can be done by passing a predicate closure. This is possible only if method of a task or a closure throwing a StopExecutionException before the actual work of a task is executed.

Copy and save the following code into build.gradle file.

task eclipse  {
   println 'Hello Eclipse'
}

// -1st approach - closure returning true, if the task should be executed, false if not.
eclipse.onlyIf {
   project.hasProperty('usingEclipse')
}

// -2nd approach - alternatively throw an StopExecutionException() like this
eclipse.doFirst {
   if(!usingEclipse) {
      throw new StopExecutionException()
   }
}

Execute the following command in the command prompt. You should execute this where the build.gradle file is stored.

C:> gradle –q eclipse

Task Structure

Gradle has different phases, when working with tasks. First of all, there is a configuration phase, where the code, which is specified directly in a task&-8217;s closure, is executed. The configuration block is executed for every available task and not only for those tasks which are later actually executed.

After the configuration phase, the execution phase runs the code inside the doFirst or doLast closures of those tasks, which are actually executed.

Gradle &-8211; Dependency Management

Gradle build script defines a process to build projects; each project contains some dependencies and some publications. Dependencies means the things that support to build your project such as required JAR file from other projects and external JARs like JDBC JAR or Eh-cache JAR in the class path. Publications means the outcomes of the project, such as test class files and build files, like war files.

All most all the projects are not self-contained. They need files build by other projects to compile and test the source files. For example, in order to use Hibernate in the project, you need to include some Hibernate JARs in the classpath. Gradle uses some special script to define the dependencies, which needs to be downloaded.

Gradle take care of building and publishing the outcomes somewhere. Publishing is based on task that you define. It might want to copy the files to local directory, or upload them to a remote Maven or lvy repository or you might use the files from another project in the same multi-project build. We can call the process of publishing a task is publication.

Declaring Your Dependencies

Dependency configuration is nothing but defines set of dependences. You can use this feature to declare external dependences means which you want to download from the web. This defines different standers such as follows.

apply plugin: 'java'

repositories {
   mavenCentral()
}

dependencies {
   compile group: 'org.hibernate', name: 'hibernate-core', version: '3.6.7.Final'
   testCompile group: 'junit', name: 'junit', version: '4.+'
}

Dependency Configurations

Dependency configuration is nothing but defines a set of dependencies. You can use this feature to declare external dependencies, which you want to download from the web. This defines the following different standard configurations.

  • Compile − The dependencies required to compile the production source of the project.

  • Runtime − The dependencies required by the production classes at runtime. By default, also includes the compile time dependencies.

  • Test Compile − The dependencies required to compile the test source of the project. By default, it includes compiled production classes and the compile time dependencies.

  • Test Runtime − The dependencies required to run the tests. By default, it includes runtime and test compile dependencies.

External Dependencies

External dependencies are the one of the type of dependencies. This is a dependency on some files built outside on the current build, and stored in a repository of some kind, such as Maven central, or a corporate Maven or lvy repository, or a directory I the local file system.

The following code snippet is to define the external dependency. Use this code in build.gradle file.

dependencies {
   compile group: 'org.hibernate', name: 'hibernate-core', version: '3.6.7.Final'
}

An external dependency is declaring external dependencies and the shortcut form looks like &-8220;group: name: version&-8221;.

Repositories

While adding external dependencies. Gradle looks for them in a repository. A repository is just a collection of files, organized by group, name and version. By default, Gradle does not define any repositories. We have to define at least one repository explicitly. The following code snippet defines how to define maven repository. Use this code in build.gradle file.

repositories {
   mavenCentral()
}

Following code is to define remote maven. Use this code in build.gradle file.

repositories {
   maven {
      url "http://repo.mycompany.com/maven2"
   }
}

Publishing Artifacts

Dependency configurations are also used to publish files. These published files are called artifacts. Usually, we use plug-ins to define artifacts. However, you do need to tell Gradle where to publish the artifacts. You can achieve this by attaching repositories to the upload archives task. Take a look at the following syntax for publishing Maven repository. While executing, Gradle will generate and upload a Pom.xml as per the project requirements. Use this code in build.gradle file.

apply plugin: 'maven'

uploadArchives {
   repositories {
      mavenDeployer {
         repository(url: "file://localhost/tmp/myRepo/")
      }
   }
}

Gradle &-8211; Plugins

Plugin is nothing but set of tasks, almost all useful tasks such as compiling tasks, setting domain objects, setting up source files, etc are handled by plugins. Applying a plugin to a project means that allows the plugin to extend the project’s capabilities. The plugins can do the things such as −

  • Extend the basic Gradle model (e.g. add new DSL elements that can be configured).
  • Configure the project according to conversions (e.g. add new tasks or configure sensible defaults).
  • Apply specific configuration (e.g. add organizational repositories or enforce standards).

Types of Plugins

There are two types of plugins in Gradle, script plugins and binary plugins. Script plugins is an additional build script that gives a declarative approach to manipulating the build. This is typically used within a build. Binary plugins are the classes that implement the plugin interface and adopt a programmatic approach to manipulating the build. Binary plugins can reside with a build script, with the project hierarchy or externally in a plugin JAR.

Applying Plugins

Project.apply() API method is used to apply the particular plugin. You can use the same plugin for multiple times. There are two types of plugins one is script plugin and second is binary plugin.

Script Plugins

Script plugins can be applied from a script on the local filesystem or at a remote location. Filesystem locations are relative to the project directory, while remote script locations specifies HTTP URL. Take a look at the following code snippet. It is used to apply the other.gradle plugin to the build script. Use this code in build.gradle file.

apply from: 'other.gradle'

Binary Plugins

Each plugin is identified by plugin id in those some core plugins are using short names to apply it and some Community plugins are using fully qualified name for plugin id. Some time it allows to specify class of plugin.

Take a look into the following code snippet. It shows how to apply java plugin by using its type. Use this code in build.gradle file.

apply plugin: JavaPlugin

Take a look into the following code for applying core plugin using short name. Use this code in build.gradle file.

plugins {
   id 'java'
}

Take a look into the following code for applying community plugin using short name. Use this code in build.gradle file.

plugins {
   id "com.jfrog.bintray" version "0.4.1"
}

Writing Custom Plugins

While creating a custom plugin, you need to write an implementation of plugin. Gradle instantiates the plugin and calls the plugin instance using Plugin.apply() method. The following sample contains a greeting plugin, which adds a hello task to the project. Take a look into the following code. Use this code in build.gradle file.

apply plugin: GreetingPlugin

class GreetingPlugin implements PluginProject> {
   void apply(Project project) {
      project.task('hello')  {
         println "Hello from the GreetingPlugin"
      }
   }
}

Use the following code to execute the above script.

C:> gradle -q hello

Output:

Hello from the GreetingPlugin

Getting Input from the Build

Most of the plugins need the configuration support from the build script. The Gradle project has an associated ExtensionContainer object that helps to track all the setting and properties being passed to plugins.

Let&-8217;s add a simple extension object to the project. Here we add a greeting extension object to the project, which allows you to configure the greeting. Use this code in build.gradle file.

apply plugin: GreetingPlugin

greeting.message = 'Hi from Gradle'

class GreetingPlugin implements PluginProject> {
   void apply(Project project) {
      // Add the 'greeting' extension object
      project.extensions.create("greeting", GreetingPluginExtension)
		
      // Add a task that uses the configuration
      project.task('hello')  {
         println project.greeting.message
      }
   }
}

class GreetingPluginExtension {
   def String message = 'Hello from GreetingPlugin'
}

Use the following code to execute the above script.

C:> gradle -q hello

Output:

Hi from Gradle

In this example, GreetingPlugin is a plain old Groovy object with a field called message. The extension object is added to the plugin list with the name greeting. This object then becomes available as a project property with the same name as the extension object.

Gradle adds a configuration closure for each extension object, so you can group the settings together. Take a look at the following code. Use this code in build.gradle file.

apply plugin: GreetingPlugin

greeting {
   message = 'Hi'
   greeter = 'Gradle'
}

class GreetingPlugin implements PluginProject> {
   void apply(Project project) {
      project.extensions.create("greeting", GreetingPluginExtension)
		
      project.task('hello')  {
         println "${project.greeting.message} from ${project.greeting.greeter}"
      }
   }
}

class GreetingPluginExtension {
   String message
   String greeter
}

Use the following code to execute the above script.

C:> gradle -q hello

Output:

Hello from Gradle

Standard Gradle Plugins

There are different plugins which are included in the Gradle distribution.

Language Plugins

These plugins add support for various languages which can be compiled and executed in the JVM.

Plugin Id Automatically Applies Description
java java-base Adds Java compilation, testing, and bundling capabilities to a project. It serves as the basis for many of the other Gradle plugins.
groovy java,groovy-base Adds support for building Groovy projects.
scala java,scala-base Adds support for building Scala projects.
antlr Java Adds support for generating parsers using Antlr.

Incubating Language Plugins

These plugins add support for various languages.

Plugin Id Automatically Applies Description
assembler &-8211; Adds native assembly language capabilities to a project.
c &-8211; Adds C source compilation capabilities to a project.
cpp &-8211; Adds C++ source compilation capabilities to a project.
objective-c &-8211; Adds Objective-C source compilation capabilities to a project.
objective-cpp &-8211; Adds Objective-C++ source compilation capabilities to a project.
windows-resources &-8211; Adds support for including Windows resources in native binaries.

Gradle &-8211; Running a Build

Gradle provides a command line to execute build script. It can execute more than one task at a time. This chapter explains how to execute multiple tasks using different options.

Executing Multiple Tasks

You can execute multiple tasks from a single build file. Gradle can handle that build file using gradle command. This command will compile each task in the order that they are listed and execute each task along with the dependencies using different options.

Example − There are four tasks &-8211; task1, task2, task3, and task4. Task3 and task4 depends on task 1and task2. Take a look at the following diagram.

Executing Multiple Tasks

In the above 4 tasks are dependent on each other represented with an arrow symbol. Take a look into the following code. Copy can paste it into build.gradle file.

task task1  {
   println 'compiling source'
}

task task2(dependsOn: task1)  {
   println 'compiling unit tests'
}

task task3(dependsOn: [task1, task2])  {
   println 'running unit tests'
}

task task4(dependsOn: [task1, task3])  {
   println 'building the distribution'
}

You can use the following code for compiling and executing above task.

C:> gradle task4 test

Output:

:task1
compiling source
:task2
compiling unit tests
:task3
running unit tests
:task4
building the distribution

BUILD SUCCESSFUL

Total time: 1 secs

Excluding Tasks

While excluding a task from the execution you can use –x option along with the gradle command and mention the name of the task, which you want to exclude.

Use the following command to exclude task4 from the above script.

C:> gradle task4 -x test

Output:

:task1
compiling source
:task4
building the distribution

BUILD SUCCESSFUL

Total time: 1 secs

Continuing the Build When a Failure Occurs

Gradle will abort execution and fail the build as soon as any task fails. You can continue the execution even when a failure occurs. For this you have to use –continue option with the gradle command. It handles each task separately along with their dependences. And the main important point is it will catch each encountered failure and report at the end of the execution of the build. Suppose if a task fails then the dependent subsequent tasks also will not be executed.

Selecting Which Build to Execute

When you run the gradle command, it looks for a build file in the current directory. You can use the –b option to select a particular build file along with absolute path. The following example selecting a project hello from myproject.gradle file which is located in the subdir/ take a look into it.

task hello  {
   println "using build file '$buildFile.name' in '$buildFile.parentFile.name'."
}

You can use the following command to execute the above script.

C:> gradle -q -b subdir/myproject.gradle hello

Output:

using build file 'myproject.gradle' in 'subdir'.

Obtaining Build Information

Gradle provides several built-in tasks for retrieving the information details regarding the task and the project. This can be useful to understand the structure and the dependencies of your build and for debugging problems. You can use project report plugin to add tasks to your project, which will generate these reports.

Listing Projects

You can list the project hierarchy of the selected project and their sub projects using gradle –q projects command. Here is the example, use the following command to list all the project in the build file.

C:> gradle -q projects

Output:

------------------------------------------------------------
Root project
------------------------------------------------------------

Root project 'projectReports'
+--- Project ':api' - The shared API for the application
--- Project ':webapp' - The Web application implementation

To see a list of the tasks of a project, run gradle project-path>:tasks
For example, try running gradle :api:tasks

The report shows the description of each project if specified. You can use the following command to specify the description. Paste it in the build.gradle file.

description = 'The shared API for the application'

Listing Tasks

You can list all the tasks which belong to the multiple projects by using the following command.

C:> gradle -q tasks

Output:

------------------------------------------------------------
All tasks runnable from root project
------------------------------------------------------------

Default tasks: dists

Build tasks
-----------
clean - Deletes the build directory (build)
dists - Builds the distribution
libs - Builds the JAR

Build Setup tasks
-----------------
init - Initializes a new Gradle build. [incubating]
wrapper - Generates Gradle wrapper files. [incubating]

Help tasks
----------
buildEnvironment - Displays all buildscript dependencies declared in root project 'projectReports'.
components - Displays the components produced by root project 'projectReports'. [incubating]
dependencies - Displays all dependencies declared in root project 'projectReports'.
dependencyInsight - Displays the insight into a specific dependency in root project 'projectReports'.
help - Displays a help message.
model - Displays the configuration model of root project 'projectReports'. [incubating]
projects - Displays the sub-projects of root project 'projectReports'.
properties - Displays the properties of root project 'projectReports'.
tasks - Displays the tasks runnable from root project 'projectReports' 
   (some of the displayed tasks may belong to subprojects).

To see all tasks and more detail, run gradle tasks --all

To see more detail about a task, run gradle help --task task>

You can use the following command to display the information of all tasks.

C:> gradle -q tasks --all

Output:

------------------------------------------------------------
All tasks runnable from root project
------------------------------------------------------------

Default tasks: dists

Build tasks
-----------
clean - Deletes the build directory (build)
api:clean - Deletes the build directory (build)
webapp:clean - Deletes the build directory (build)
dists - Builds the distribution [api:libs, webapp:libs]
   docs - Builds the documentation
api:libs - Builds the JAR
   api:compile - Compiles the source files
webapp:libs - Builds the JAR [api:libs]
   webapp:compile - Compiles the source files

Build Setup tasks
-----------------
init - Initializes a new Gradle build. [incubating]
wrapper - Generates Gradle wrapper files. [incubating]

Help tasks
----------
buildEnvironment - Displays all buildscript dependencies declared in root project 'projectReports'.
api:buildEnvironment - Displays all buildscript dependencies declared in project ':api'.
webapp:buildEnvironment - Displays all buildscript dependencies declared in project ':webapp'.
components - Displays the components produced by root project 'projectReports'. [incubating]
api:components - Displays the components produced by project ':api'. [incubating]
webapp:components - Displays the components produced by project ':webapp'. [incubating]
dependencies - Displays all dependencies declared in root project 'projectReports'.
api:dependencies - Displays all dependencies declared in project ':api'.
webapp:dependencies - Displays all dependencies declared in project ':webapp'.
dependencyInsight - Displays the insight into a specific dependency in root project 'projectReports'.
api:dependencyInsight - Displays the insight into a specific dependency in project ':api'.
webapp:dependencyInsight - Displays the insight into a specific dependency in project ':webapp'.
help - Displays a help message.
api:help - Displays a help message.
webapp:help - Displays a help message.
model - Displays the configuration model of root project 'projectReports'. [incubating]
api:model - Displays the configuration model of project ':api'. [incubating]
webapp:model - Displays the configuration model of project ':webapp'. [incubating]
projects - Displays the sub-projects of root project 'projectReports'.
api:projects - Displays the sub-projects of project ':api'.
webapp:projects - Displays the sub-projects of project ':webapp'.
properties - Displays the properties of root project 'projectReports'.
api:properties - Displays the properties of project ':api'.
webapp:properties - Displays the properties of project ':webapp'.
tasks - Displays the tasks runnable from root project 'projectReports' 
   (some of the displayed tasks may belong to subprojects).
api:tasks - Displays the tasks runnable from project ':api'.
webapp:tasks - Displays the tasks runnable from project ':webapp'.

Here are some list of commands in a table description different options.

Sr. No. Command Description
1 gradle –q help –task task name> Provides the usage information (such as path, type, description, group) about a specific task or multiple tasks.
2 gradle –q dependencies Provides a list of dependencies of the selected project.
3 gradle -q api:dependencies &-8211;configuration task name> Provides the list of limited dependencies respective to configuration.
4 gradle –q buildEnvironment Provides the list of build script dependencies.
5 gradle –q dependencyInsight Provides an insight into a particular dependency.
6 Gradle –q properties Provides the list of properties of the selected project.

Gradle &-8211; Build a JAVA Project

This chapter explains about how to build a java project using Gradle build file.

First of all we have to add java plugin to the build script because it provides tasks to compile Java source code, run unit tests, create Javadoc and create a JAR file. Use the following line in build.gradle file.

apply plugin: 'java'

Java Default Project Layout

When ever you add a plugin to your build it assume a certain setup of your Java project (similar to Maven). take a look into the following directory structre.

  • src/main/java contains the Java source code
  • src/test/java contains the Java tests

If you follow this setup, the following build file is sufficient to compile, test, and bundle a Java project.

To start the build, type the following command on the command line.

C:> gradle build

SourceSets can be used to specify a different project structure. For example, the sources are stored in a src folder rather than in src/main/java. Take a look at the following directory structure.

apply plugin: 'java'
sourceSets {
   main {
      java {
         srcDir 'src'
      }
   }
	
   test {
      java {
         srcDir 'test'
      }
   }
}

init Task Execution

Gradle does not yet support multiple project templates. But it offers an init task to create the structure of a new Gradle project. Without additional parameters, this task creates a Gradle project, which contains the gradle wrapper files, a build.gradle and settings.gradle file.

When adding the &-8211;type parameter with java-library as value, a java project structure is created and the build.gradle file contains a certain Java template with Junit. Take a look at the following code for build.gradle file.

apply plugin: 'java'

repositories {
   jcenter()
}

dependencies {
   compile 'org.slf4j:slf4j-api:1.7.12'
   testCompile 'junit:junit:4.12'
}

In the repositories section, it defines where to find the dependencies. Jcenter is for resolving your dependencies. Dependencies section is for providing information about external dependencies.

Specifying Java Version

Usually, a Java project has a version and a target JRE on which it is compiled. The version and sourceCompatibility property can be set in the build.gradle file.

version = 0.1.0
sourceCompatibility = 1.8

If the artifact is an executable Java application, the MANIFEST.MF file must be aware of the class with the main method.

apply plugin: 'java'

jar {
   manifest {
      attributes 'Main-Class': 'com.example.main.Application'
   }
}

Example:

Create a directory structure as shown in the below screenshot.

Directory Structure

Copy the below given java code into App.java file and store into consumerbankingsrcmainjavacombank directory.

package com.bank;

/**
* Hello world!
*
*/

public class App {
   public static void main( String[] args ){
      System.out.println( "Hello World!" );
   }
}

Copy the below given java code into AppTset.java file and store into consumerbankingsrctestjavacombank directory.

package com.bank;

/**
* Hello world!
*
*/

public class App{
   public static void main( String[] args ){
      System.out.println( "Hello World!" );
   }
}

Copy the below given code into build.gradle file and placed into consumerbanking directory.

apply plugin: 'java'

repositories {
   jcenter()
}

dependencies {
   compile 'org.slf4j:slf4j-api:1.7.12'
   testCompile 'junit:junit:4.12'
}

jar {
   manifest {
      attributes 'Main-Class': 'com.example.main.Application'
   }
}

To compile and execute the above script use the below given commands.

consumerbanking> gradle tasks
consumerbanking> gradle assemble
consumerbanking> gradle build

Check all the class files in the respective directories and check consumerbankingbuildlib folder for consumerbanking.jar file.

Gradle &-8211; Build a Groovy Project

This chapter explains how to compile and execute a Groovy project using build.gradle file.

The Groovy Plug-in

The Groovy plug-in for Gradle extends the Java plug-in and provides tasks for Groovy programs. You can use the following line for applying groovy plugin.

apply plugin: 'groovy'

The complete build script file is as follows. Copy the following code into build.gradle file.

apply plugin: 'groovy'

repositories {
   mavenCentral()
}

dependencies {
   compile 'org.codehaus.groovy:groovy-all:2.4.5'
   testCompile 'junit:junit:4.12'
}

You can use the following command to execute the build script.

gradle build

Default Project Layout of Groovy Projects

The Groovy plugin assumes a certain setup of your Groovy project.

  • src/main/groovy contains the Groovy source code
  • src/test/groovy contains the Groovy tests
  • src/main/java contains the Java source code
  • src/test/java contains the Java tests

Check the respective directory where build.gradle file places for build folder.

Gradle &-8211; Testing

The test task automatically detects and executes all unit tests in the test source set. It also generates a report once test execution is complete. JUnit and TestNG are the supported APIs.

The test task provides a Test.getDebug() method that can be set to launch to make the JVM wait for a debugger. Before proceeding to the execution, it sets the debugger post to 5005.

Test Detection

The Test Task detects which classes are test classes by inspecting the compiled test classes. By default it scans all .class files. You can set custom includes / excludes, only those classes will be scanned. Depending on the test framework used (JUnit / TestNG), the test class detection uses different criteria.

When using JUnit, we scan for both JUnit 3 and 4 test classes. If any of the following criteria match, the class is considered to be a JUnit test class −

  • Class or a super class extends TestCase or GroovyTestCase
  • Class or a super class is annotated with @RunWith
  • Class or a super class contain a method annotated with @Test
  • When using TestNG, we scan for methods annotated with @Test

Note − The abstract classes are not executed. Gradle also scans the inheritance tree into jar files on the test classpath.

If you don&-8217;t want to use test class detection, you can disable it by setting scanForTestClasses to false.

Test Grouping

JUnit and TestNG allows sophisticated groupings of test methods. For grouping, JUnit test classes and methods JUnit 4.8 introduces the concept of categories. The test task allows the specification of the JUnit categories you want to include and exclude.

You can use the following code snippet in build.gradle file to group test methods.

test {
   useJUnit {
      includeCategories 'org.gradle.junit.CategoryA'
      excludeCategories 'org.gradle.junit.CategoryB'
   }
}

Include and Exclude Particular Tests

The Test class has an include and exclude method. These methods can be used to specify, which tests should actually be run.

Run only the included tests −

test {
   include '**my.package.name/*'
}

Skip excluded tests −

test {
   exclude '**my.package.name/*'
}

The sample build.gradle file as shown below it shows different configuration options.

apply plugin: 'java' // adds 'test' task

test {
   // enable TestNG support (default is JUnit)
   useTestNG()

   // set a system property for the test JVM(s)
   systemProperty 'some.prop', 'value'

   // explicitly include or exclude tests
   include 'org/foo/**'
   exclude 'org/boo/**'

   // show standard out and standard error of the test JVM(s) on the console
   testLogging.showStandardStreams = true

   // set heap size for the test JVM(s)
   minHeapSize = "128m"
   maxHeapSize = "512m"

   // set JVM arguments for the test JVM(s)
   jvmArgs '-XX:MaxPermSize=256m'
   
   // listen to events in the test execution lifecycle
   beforeTest { 
      descriptor → logger.lifecycle("Running test: " + descriptor)
   }

   // listen to standard out and standard error of the test JVM(s)
   onOutput { 
      descriptor, event → logger.lifecycle
         ("Test: " + descriptor + " produced standard out/err: " 
         + event.message )
   }
}

You can use the following command syntax to execute some test task.

gradle someTestTask> --debug-jvm

Gradle &-8211; Multi-Project Build

Gradle can handle smallest and largest projects easily. Small projects have a single build file and a source tree. It is very easy to digest and understand a project that has been split into smaller, inter-dependent modules. Gradle perfectly supports this scenario that is multi-project build.

Structure for Multi-project Build

Such builds come in all shapes and sizes, but they do have some common characteristics −

  • A settings.gradle file in the root or master directory of the project.

  • A build.gradle file in the root or master directory.

  • Child directories that have their own *.gradle build files (some multi-project builds may omit child project build scripts).

For listing all the projects in the build file, you can use the following command.

C:> gradle -q projects

Output:

------------------------------------------------------------
Root project
------------------------------------------------------------

Root project 'projectReports'
+--- Project ':api' - The shared API for the application
--- Project ':webapp' - The Web application implementation

To see a list of the tasks of a project, run gradle project-path>:tasks
For example, try running gradle :api:tasks

The report shows the description of each project, if specified. You can use the following command to specify the description. Paste it in the build.gradle file.

description = 'The shared API for the application'

Specifying a General Build Configuration

In a build.gradle file in the root_project, general configurations can be applied to all projects or just to the sub projects.

allprojects {
   group = 'com.example.gradle'
   version = '0.1.0'
}

subprojects {
   apply plugin: 'java'
   apply plugin: 'eclipse'
}

This specifies a common com.example.gradle group and the 0.1.0 version to all projects. The subprojects closure applies common configurations for all sub projects, but not to the root project, like the allprojects closure does.

Project Specific Configurations and Dependencies

The core ui and util subprojects can also have their own build.gradle file, if they have specific needs, which are not already applied by the general configuration of the root project.

For instance, the ui project usually has a dependency to the core project. So the ui project needs its own build.gradle file to specify this dependency.

dependencies {
   compile project(':core')
   compile 'log4j:log4j:1.2.17'
}

Project dependencies are specified with the project method.

Gradle &-8211; Deployment

Gradle offers several ways to deploy build artifacts repositories. When deploying signatures for your artifacts to a Maven repository, you will also want to sign the published POM file.

Using the Maven-publish Plugin

maven-publish plugin, which is provides by Gradle by default. Used to publish the gradle script. Take a look into the following code.

apply plugin: 'java'
apply plugin: 'maven-publish'

publishing {
   publications {
      mavenJava(MavenPublication) {
         from components.java
      }
   }

   repositories {
      maven {
         url "$buildDir/repo"
      }
   }
}

There are several publish options, when the Java and the maven-publish plugin is applied. Take a look at the following code, it will deploy the project into a remote repository.

apply plugin: 'groovy'
apply plugin: 'maven-publish'

group 'workshop'
version = '1.0.0'

publishing {
   publications {
      mavenJava(MavenPublication) { 
         from components.java 
      }
   }
	
   repositories {
      maven {
          default credentials for a nexus repository manager
         credentials {
            username 'admin'
            password 'admin123'
         }
         // url to the releases maven repository
            url "http://localhost:8081/nexus/content/repositories/releases/"
      }
   }
}

Converting a Project from Maven to Gradle

There is a special command for converting Apache Maven pom.xml files to Gradle build files, if all used Maven plug-ins are known to this task.

In this section the following pom.xml maven configuration will be converted to a Gradle project. Take a look into it.

project xmlns = "http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" 
   xmlns:xsi = "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
   xsi:schemaLocation = "http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0
   http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	
   modelVersion>4.0.0/modelVersion>
   groupId>com.example.app/groupId>
   artifactId>example-app/artifactId>
   packaging>jar/packaging>
   
   version>1.0.0-SNAPSHOT/version>
	
   dependencies>
      dependency>
         groupId>junit/groupId>
         artifactId>junit/artifactId>

         version>4.11/version>
         scope>test/scope>
      /dependency>
   /dependencies>
	
/project>

You can use the following command on the command line that results in the following Gradle configuration.

C:> gradle init --type pom

The init task depends on the wrapper task so that a Gradle wrapper is created.

The resulting build.gradle file looks similar to this −

apply plugin: 'java'
apply plugin: 'maven'

group = 'com.example.app'
version = '1.0.0-SNAPSHOT'

description = """"""

sourceCompatibility = 1.5
targetCompatibility = 1.5

repositories {
   maven { url "http://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2" }
}

dependencies {
   testCompile group: 'junit', name: 'junit', version:'4.11'
}

Gradle &-8211; Eclipse Integration

This chapter explains about the integration of eclipse and Gradle. Follow the below given steps for adding Gradle plugin to eclipse.

Step 1 − Open Eclipse Marketplace

First of all open the eclipse which is installed in your system. Go to help -> click on EclipseMarketplace. Take a look into the following screenshot.

Open Eclipse Marketplace

Step 2 − Install Buildship Plugin

After click on the Eclipse Marketplace there you will find the following screenshot. Here in the left side search bar type buildship. Buildship is a Gradle integration plugin. When you find the buildship on your screen click on install on the right side. Take a look into the following screenshot.

Install Buildship Plugin

After that you will find the following screenshot there you need to confirm the software installation by click on the confirm button. Take a look into the following screenshot.

Confirm

After that you need to click on accept license agreement in the following screen and click finish. Take a look into the following screenshot.

Accept License

It will take some time to install. Take a look at the following screenshot.

Installation Process

After that, it will ask for restarting Eclipse. There you will select Yes.

Step 3 − Verifying Gradle Plugin

While verifying we will create a new project by following given procedure. In the eclipse go to file -> click on new-> click on other projects. There you will find the following screen. There select Gradle project and click next. Take a look into the following screen shot.

Verifying Gradle Plugin

After clicking next button there you will find the following screen. There you will provide the Gradle home directory path of local file system and click on next button. Take a look into the following screenshot.

Gradle Home Directory

Take a look into the following screenshot here you will provide the name for Gradle project. In this tutorial we are using demoproject and click finish button.

Demo Project

Take a look into the following screenshot there we need to confirm the project. For that we have click finish button in the following screen.

Confirm the Project

Step 4 − Verifying Directory Structure

After successful installation of Gradle plugin, please check the demo project directory structure for the default files and folders as shown in the following screenshot.

Verifying Directory Structure



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Gradle – Home

Gradle – Overview

Gradle – Installation

Gradle – Build Script

Gradle – Tasks

Gradle – Dependency Management

Gradle – Plugins

Gradle – Running a Build

Gradle – Build a JAVA Project

Gradle – Build a Groovy Project

Gradle – Testing

Gradle – Multi-Project Build

Gradle – Deployment

Gradle – Eclipse Integration

Gradle &-8211; Quick Guide

Gradle &-8211; Useful Resources

Gradle &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who

Gradle – Eclipse Integration

Gradle &-8211; Eclipse Integration &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-15 08:31:58 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

Gradle &-8211; Eclipse Integration


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This chapter explains about the integration of eclipse and Gradle. Follow the below given steps for adding Gradle plugin to eclipse.

Step 1 − Open Eclipse Marketplace

First of all open the eclipse which is installed in your system. Go to help -> click on EclipseMarketplace. Take a look into the following screenshot.

Open Eclipse Marketplace

Step 2 − Install Buildship Plugin

After click on the Eclipse Marketplace there you will find the following screenshot. Here in the left side search bar type buildship. Buildship is a Gradle integration plugin. When you find the buildship on your screen click on install on the right side. Take a look into the following screenshot.

Install Buildship Plugin

After that you will find the following screenshot there you need to confirm the software installation by click on the confirm button. Take a look into the following screenshot.

Confirm

After that you need to click on accept license agreement in the following screen and click finish. Take a look into the following screenshot.

Accept License

It will take some time to install. Take a look at the following screenshot.

Installation Process

After that, it will ask for restarting Eclipse. There you will select Yes.

Step 3 − Verifying Gradle Plugin

While verifying we will create a new project by following given procedure. In the eclipse go to file -> click on new-> click on other projects. There you will find the following screen. There select Gradle project and click next. Take a look into the following screen shot.

Verifying Gradle Plugin

After clicking next button there you will find the following screen. There you will provide the Gradle home directory path of local file system and click on next button. Take a look into the following screenshot.

Gradle Home Directory

Take a look into the following screenshot here you will provide the name for Gradle project. In this tutorial we are using demoproject and click finish button.

Demo Project

Take a look into the following screenshot there we need to confirm the project. For that we have click finish button in the following screen.

Confirm the Project

Step 4 − Verifying Directory Structure

After successful installation of Gradle plugin, please check the demo project directory structure for the default files and folders as shown in the following screenshot.

Verifying Directory Structure



Advertisements

Gradle – Home

Gradle – Overview

Gradle – Installation

Gradle – Build Script

Gradle – Tasks

Gradle – Dependency Management

Gradle – Plugins

Gradle – Running a Build

Gradle – Build a JAVA Project

Gradle – Build a Groovy Project

Gradle – Testing

Gradle – Multi-Project Build

Gradle – Deployment

Gradle – Eclipse Integration

Gradle &-8211; Quick Guide

Gradle &-8211; Useful Resources

Gradle &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who

Gradle – Deployment

Gradle &-8211; Deployment &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-15 08:31:57 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

Gradle &-8211; Deployment


Advertisements


Gradle offers several ways to deploy build artifacts repositories. When deploying signatures for your artifacts to a Maven repository, you will also want to sign the published POM file.

Using the Maven-publish Plugin

maven-publish plugin, which is provides by Gradle by default. Used to publish the gradle script. Take a look into the following code.

apply plugin: 'java'
apply plugin: 'maven-publish'

publishing {
   publications {
      mavenJava(MavenPublication) {
         from components.java
      }
   }

   repositories {
      maven {
         url "$buildDir/repo"
      }
   }
}

There are several publish options, when the Java and the maven-publish plugin is applied. Take a look at the following code, it will deploy the project into a remote repository.

apply plugin: 'groovy'
apply plugin: 'maven-publish'

group 'workshop'
version = '1.0.0'

publishing {
   publications {
      mavenJava(MavenPublication) { 
         from components.java 
      }
   }
	
   repositories {
      maven {
          default credentials for a nexus repository manager
         credentials {
            username 'admin'
            password 'admin123'
         }
         // url to the releases maven repository
            url "http://localhost:8081/nexus/content/repositories/releases/"
      }
   }
}

Converting a Project from Maven to Gradle

There is a special command for converting Apache Maven pom.xml files to Gradle build files, if all used Maven plug-ins are known to this task.

In this section the following pom.xml maven configuration will be converted to a Gradle project. Take a look into it.

project xmlns = "http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" 
   xmlns:xsi = "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
   xsi:schemaLocation = "http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0
   http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	
   modelVersion>4.0.0/modelVersion>
   groupId>com.example.app/groupId>
   artifactId>example-app/artifactId>
   packaging>jar/packaging>
   
   version>1.0.0-SNAPSHOT/version>
	
   dependencies>
      dependency>
         groupId>junit/groupId>
         artifactId>junit/artifactId>

         version>4.11/version>
         scope>test/scope>
      /dependency>
   /dependencies>
	
/project>

You can use the following command on the command line that results in the following Gradle configuration.

C:> gradle init --type pom

The init task depends on the wrapper task so that a Gradle wrapper is created.

The resulting build.gradle file looks similar to this −

apply plugin: 'java'
apply plugin: 'maven'

group = 'com.example.app'
version = '1.0.0-SNAPSHOT'

description = """"""

sourceCompatibility = 1.5
targetCompatibility = 1.5

repositories {
   maven { url "http://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2" }
}

dependencies {
   testCompile group: 'junit', name: 'junit', version:'4.11'
}


Advertisements

Gradle – Home

Gradle – Overview

Gradle – Installation

Gradle – Build Script

Gradle – Tasks

Gradle – Dependency Management

Gradle – Plugins

Gradle – Running a Build

Gradle – Build a JAVA Project

Gradle – Build a Groovy Project

Gradle – Testing

Gradle – Multi-Project Build

Gradle – Deployment

Gradle – Eclipse Integration

Gradle &-8211; Quick Guide

Gradle &-8211; Useful Resources

Gradle &-8211; Discussion

UPSC IAS Exams Notes

Developer&-8217;s Best Practices

Questions and Answers

Effective Resume Writing

HR Interview Questions

Computer Glossary

Who is Who