GATE Syllabus

GATE Section-XL-S Microbiology Syllabus

GATE Section-XL-S Microbiology Syllabus &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-14 03:53:39 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

GATE Section-XL-S Microbiology Syllabus


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Course Syllabus

Unit 1: Historical Perspective

  • Discovery of microbial world

  • Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of microbiology

  • Controversy over spontaneous generation

  • Role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases

Unit 2: Methods in Microbiology

  • Pure culture techniques
  • Theory and practice of sterilization
  • Principles of microbial nutrition
  • Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms
  • Light-, phase contrast- and electron-microscopy

Unit 3: Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity

  • Bacteria, Archaea and their broad classification
  • Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds and protozoa
  • Viruses and their classification
  • Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy

Unit 4: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: structure and Function

  • Prokaryotic Cells −
    • Cell walls
    • cell membranes
    • mechanisms of solute transport across membranes
    • Flagella and Pili
    • Capsules
    • Cell inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles
  • Eukaryotic cell organelles −
    • Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Golgi apparatus
    • Mitochondria
    • Chloroplasts

Unit 5: Microbial Growth

  • Definition of growth
  • Growth curve
  • Mathematical expression of exponential growth phase
  • Measurement of growth and growth yields
  • Synchronous growth
  • Continuous culture
  • Effect of environmental factors on growth

Unit 6: Control of Micro-Organisms

  • Effect of physical and chemical agents
  • Evaluation of effectiveness of antimicrobial agents

Unit 7: Microbial Metabolism

  • Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers
  • An overview of metabolism
  • Glycolysis
  • Pentose-phosphate pathway
  • Entner-Doudoroff pathway
  • Glyoxalate
  • Pathway
  • The citric acid cycle
  • Fermentation
  • Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
  • Chemolithotrophy
  • Photosynthesis
  • Calvin cycle
  • Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis
  • Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids
  • Regulation of major metabolic pathways

Unit 8: Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction

  • Normal microbiota
  • Classification of infectious diseases
  • Reservoirs of infection
  • Nosocomial infection
  • Emerging infectious diseases
  • Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity
  • Nonspecific defense of host
  • Antigens and antibodies
  • Humoral and cell mediated immunity
  • Vaccines
  • Immune deficiency
  • Human diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi

Unit 9: Chemotherapy/Antibiotics

  • General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs
  • Antibiotics: Classification, mode of action and resistance
  • Antifungal and antiviral drugs

Unit 10: Microbial Genetics

  • Types of mutation

  • UV and chemical mutagens

  • Selection of mutants

  • Ames test for mutagenesis

  • Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation, transduction, recombination, plasmids, transposons

  • DNA repair

  • Regulation of gene expression: repression and induction

  • Operon model

  • Bacterial genome with special reference to E. Coli Phage λ and its life cycle

  • RNA phages; RNA viruses; Retroviruses

  • Basic concept of microbial genomics

Unit 11: Microbial Ecology

  • Microbial interactions
  • Carbon, Sulphur and Nitrogen Cycles
  • Soil microorganisms associated with vascular plants

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GATE Section-XL-T Zoology Syllabus

GATE Section-XL-T Zoology Syllabus &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-14 03:53:39 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

GATE Section-XL-T Zoology Syllabus


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Course Syllabus

Unit 1: Animal World

  • Animal diversity
  • Distribution
  • systematics and classification of animals
  • phylogenetic relationships

Unit 2: Evolution

  • Origin and history of life on earth
  • Theories of evolution
  • Natural selection
  • Adaptation
  • Speciation

Unit 3: Genetics

  • Basic principles of inheritance
  • Molecular basis of heredity
  • Sex determination and sex-linked characteristics
  • Cytoplasmic inheritance
  • Linkage
  • Recombination and mapping of genes in eukaryotes
  • Population genetics

Unit 4: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

  • Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates

  • Replication, transcription and translation

  • Regulation of gene expression, organization of genome, Kreb’s cycle, glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, vitamins

Unit 5: Cell Biology

  • Structure of cell
  • Cellular organelles and their structure and function
  • Cell cycle
  • Cell division
  • Chromosomes and chromatin structure

Unit 6: Gene Expression in Eukaryotes

  • Eukaryotic gene organization and expression (Basic principles of signal transduction)

Unit 7: Animal Anatomy and Physiology

  • Comparative physiology
  • Respiratory system
  • Circulatory system
  • Digestive system
  • Nervous system
  • Excretory system
  • Endocrine system
  • Reproductive system
  • Skeletal system
  • Osmoregulation

Unit 8: Parasitology and Immunology

  • Nature of parasite
  • Host-parasite relation
  • Protozoan and helminthic parasites
  • The immune response
  • Cellular and humoral immune response
  • Evolution of the immune system

Unit 9: Development Biology

  • Embryonic development
  • Cellular differentiation
  • Organogenesis
  • Metamorphosis
  • Genetic basis of development
  • Stem cells

Unit 10: Ecology

  • The ecosystem
  • Habitats
  • Food chain
  • Population dynamics
  • Species diversity
  • Zoogeography
  • Biogeochemical cycles
  • Conservation biology

Unit 11: Animal Behaviour

  • Types of behaviours
  • Courtship
  • Mating and territoriality
  • Instinct
  • Learning and memory
  • Social behaviour across the animal taxa
  • Communication
  • Pheromones
  • Evolution of animal behavior

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GATE XL-U Food Technology Syllabus

GATE XL-U Food Technology Syllabus &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-14 03:53:39 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

GATE XL-U Food Technology Syllabus


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Course Syllabus

Unit 1: Food Chemistry and Nutrition

  • Carbohydrates −

    • Structure and functional properties of mono-, oligo-, & polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre

    • Gelatinization and retrogradation of starch

  • Proteins −

    • Classification and structure of proteins in food

    • Biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles

  • Lipids −

    • Classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and polymorphism

  • Pigments −

    • Carotenoids

    • Chlorophylls

    • Anthocyanins

    • Tannins

    • Myoglobin

  • Food flavours −

    • Terpenes

    • Esters

    • Aldehydes

    • Ketones

    • Quinines

  • Enzymes −

    • Specificity

    • Simple and inhibition kinetics

    • Coenzymes

    • Enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning

  • Nutrition −

    • Balanced diet

    • Essential amino acids and essential fatty acids

    • Protein efficiency ratio

    • Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins

    • Role of minerals in nutrition

    • Co-factors

    • Anti-nutrients

    • Nutraceuticals

    • Nutrient deficiency diseases

  • Chemical and biochemical changes −

    • changes occur in foods during different processing

Unit 2: Food Microbiology

  • Characteristics of microorganisms −

    • Morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and actinomycetes

    • Spores and vegetative cells

    • Gram-staining

  • Microbial growth −

    • Growth and death kinetics

    • Serial dilution technique

  • Food spoilage −

    • Spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals and their products

  • Toxins from microbes −

    • Pathogens and non-pathogens including Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Aspergillus genera

  • Fermented foods and beverages −

    • Curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soya-sauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage

Unit 3: Food Products Technology

  • Processing principles − thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture foods

  • Food pack aging and storage − packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage

  • Cereal processing and products − milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals

  • Oil processing − expelling, solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation

  • Fruits and vegetables processing − extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles

  • Plantation crops processing and products − tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices

  • Milk and milk products processing − pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, ice-cream, cheese and milk powder

  • Processing of animal products − drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder

  • Waste utilization − pectin from fruit wastes, uses of by-products from rice milling.

  • Food standards and quality maintenance − FPO, PFA, Agmark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP)

Unit 4: Food Engineering

  • Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer − Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number

  • Heat transfer − heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers

  • Mass transfer − molecular diffusion and Fick’s law, conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films

  • Mechanical operations − size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid

  • Thermal operations − thermal sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization

  • Mass transfer operations − psychrometry, humidification and dehumidification operations.

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GATE Section-XL-Q Biochemistry Syllabus

GATE Section-XL-Q Biochemistry Syllabus &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-14 03:53:38 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

GATE Section-XL-Q Biochemistry Syllabus


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Course Syllabus

Unit: 1

  • Organization of life
  • Importance of water
  • Structure and function of biomolecules −
    • Amino acids
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acids
  • Protein structure, folding and function −
    • Myoglobin
    • Hemoglobin
    • Lysozyme
    • Ribonuclease A
    • Carboxypeptidase
    • Chymotrypsin

Unit: 2

  • Enzyme kinetics including its regulation and inhibition, Vitamins and Coenzymes

  • Metabolism and bioenergetics

  • Generation and utilization of ATP

  • Metabolic pathways and their regulation −

    • Glycolysis

    • TCA cycle

    • Pentose phosphate pathway

    • Oxidative phosphorylation

    • Gluconeogenesis

    • Glycogen

    • Fatty acid metabolism

  • Metabolism of Nitrogen containing compounds −

    • Nitrogen fixation

    • Amino acids

    • Nucleotides

  • Photosynthesis −

    • Calvin cycle

Unit: 3

  • Biochemical separation techniques −
    • Ion exchange
    • Size exclusion and affinity chromatography
    • Characterization of biomolecules by electrophoresis
    • UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry

Unit: 4

  • Cell structure and organelles
  • Biological membranes
  • Transport across membranes
  • Signal transduction
  • Hormones and neurotransmitters

Unit: 5

  • DNA replication, transcription and translation
  • Biochemical regulation of gene expression
  • Recombinant DNA technology and applications −
    • PCR, site directed mutagenesis and DNA-microarray

Unit: 6

  • Immune system −
    • Active and passive immunity
    • Complement system
    • Antibody structure, function and diversity
  • Cells of the immune system −
    • T, B and macrophages
    • T and B cell activation
    • Major histocompatibilty complex
    • T cell receptor
  • Immunological techniques −
    • Immunodiffusion
    • Immunoelectrophoresis
    • RIA
    • ELISA

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GATE XL-R Botany Syllabus

GATE XL-R Botany Syllabus &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-14 03:53:38 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

GATE XL-R Botany Syllabus


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Course Syllabus

Unit 1: Plant Systematics

  • Major systems of classification
  • Plant groups
  • Phylogenetic relationships
  • Molecular systematics

Unit 2: Plant Anatomy

  • Plant cell structure and its components −
    • Cell wall and membranes
    • Organization
    • Organelles
    • Cytoskeleton
    • Anatomy of root
    • Stem and leaves
    • Floral parts
    • Embryo and young seedlings
    • Meristems
    • Vascular system
    • Their ontogeny
    • Structure and functions
    • Secondary growth in plants and stellar organization

Unit 3: Morphogenesis & Development

  • Cell cycle: cell division
  • Life cycle of an angiosperm
    • Pollination
    • Fertilization
    • Embryogenesis
    • Seed formation
    • Seed storage proteins
    • Seed dormancy and germination
  • Concept of cellular totipotency −
    • Clonal propagation
    • Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis
    • Artificial seed
    • Somaclonal variation
    • Secondary metabolism in plant cell culture
    • Embryo culture
    • In vitro fertilization

Unit 4: Physiology and Biochemistry

  • Plant water relations −

    • Transport of minerals and solutes

    • Stress physiology

    • Stomatal physiology

    • Signal transduction

    • N2 metabolism

  • Photosynthesis, photorespiration; respiration

  • Flowering −

    • Photoperiodism and vernalization

    • Biochemical mechanisms involved in flowering

  • Molecular mechanism of senescence and aging −

    • Biosynthesis

    • Mechanism of action and physiological effects of plant growth regulators

    • Structure and function of biomolecules, (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid)

    • Enzyme kinetics

Unit 5: Genetics

  • Principles of Mendelian inheritance −
    • Linkage
    • Recombination
    • Genetic mapping
  • Extrachromosomal inheritance −
    • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization
    • Regulation of gene expression
    • Gene mutation and repair
    • Chromosomal aberrations (numerical and structural)
    • Transposons

Unit 6: Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification

  • Principles, methods – selection, hybridization, heterosis, male sterility, genetic maps and molecular markers

  • Sporophytic and gametophytic self-incompatibility

  • Haploidy

  • Triploidy

  • Somatic cell hybridization

  • Marker-assisted selection

  • Gene transfer methods viz.

    • Direct and vector-mediated

    • Plastid transformation

    • Transgenic plants and their application in agriculture, molecular pharming, plantibodies

Unit 7: Economic Botany

  • A general account of economically and medicinally important plants −
    • Cereals
    • Pulses
    • Plants yielding fibers
    • Timber
    • Sugar
    • Beverages
    • Oils
    • Rubber
    • Pigments
    • Dyes
    • Gums
    • Drugs
    • Narcotics
  • Economic importance of −
    • Algae
    • Fungi
    • Lichen
    • Bacteria

Unit 8: Plant Pathology

  • Nature and classification of plant diseases −

    • Diseases of important crops caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses, and their control measures, mechanism(s) of pathogenesis and resistance, molecular detection of pathogens

  • Plant-microbe beneficial interactions

Unit 9: Ecology and Environment

  • Ecosystems −
    • Types
    • Dynamics
    • Degradation
    • Ecological succession
  • Food chains and energy flow
  • Vegetation types of the world
  • Pollution and global warming
  • Speciation and extinction
  • Conservation strategies
  • Cryopreservation
  • Phytoremediation

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