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Soyabean

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SOYABEAN (Glycine max)

 

         Agriculture Nigeria: soybean

Source: http://1st-ecofriendlyplanet.com

Soybean is a leguminous vegetable of the pea family that grows in tropical, subtropical, and temperate climates. Soybean was domesticated in the 11th century BC around northeast of China. It is believed that it might have been introduced to Africa in the 19th century by Chinese traders along the east coast of Africa[1].

The plant is classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse by the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Soy varies in growth and habit. The height of the plant varies from less than 0.2 to 2.0 m. The pods, stems, and leaves are covered with fine brown or gray hairs. The leaves fall before the seeds are mature. The crop can be successfully grown in many states in Nigeria using low agricultural input. Soybean cultivation in Nigeria has expanded as a result of its nutritive and economic importance and diverse domestic usage.

Importance

The most nutritious and most easily digested food of the bean family, the soybean is one of the richest and cheapest sources of protein. Government sources estimate that about 25 percent of Nigeria&-8217;s domestic production is consumed directly in rural areas as human food[2]. It is a staple in the diet of people and animals in numerous parts of the world today. Many leguminous crops provide some protein, but soybean is the only available crop that provide high quality source of protein comparable to meat, poultry and eggs.

Soybeans vary in protein from 24-45%. Soybeans vary in oil from 17-35%. Thus the different cultivated varieties can taste quite different from one another.[3]

Soybean oil; an extract from the seed is a major source of healthy oil in the world. It is also processed into soy ice cream, soy yogurt, soy cheese etc.

A by-product from the oil production (soybean cake) is used as a high-protein animal feed in many countries.

Soybean also improves soil fertility by adding nitrogen from the atmosphere. This is a major benefit in African farming systems, where soils have become exhausted by the need to produce more food for increasing populations, and where fertilizers are hardly available and are expensive for farmers[4].

Cultivation

In Nigeria, soybean cultivation starts in May/June. Soybeans grow well on almost all types of soil, with the exception of deep sands with poor water retention. The optimal soil pH is 6.0 to 6.5, therefore liming may be required. With respect to climate, the soybean grows best in temperate zones. The soybean is a so-called short-day plant, meaning that flowering occurs when the nights begin to lengthen. The breeding of varieties with different maturation periods (maturity groups) has permitted optimal production in a wide range of latitudes. Rainfall in the range of 500 to 700 mm. is required for good yields. Adequate water supply is especially important during the period of pod and seed development (pod filling stage). Irrigation is now considered an essential factor for increased profit and security to the farmer.

Pest and diseases

Diseases prevalent in soybean production in Africa include rust, red leaf blotch, frog-eye leaf spot, bacterial pustule, bacterial blight, and soybean mosaic virus. Pests include pod (stink bugs) and foliage feeders, bean flies and nematodes.

Soybean rust, caused by the Phakopsora pachyrhizi fungus, attacks and destroys the leaves of the plant and can cause up to 60% yield loss.

Other problems include pod shattering that reduces seed longevity, and production and distribution difficulties.

Harvesting

This normally commences in late October and runs through November every year. The crop is harvested 3 &-8211; 4 months after planting, depending on the time of sowing and seed variety. Early-maturing types can be harvested for grain 70 days after planting and late-maturing needs up to 180 days. Soybeans can be harvested by hand or by combined harvesters (this only at full maturity or after windrowing &-8211; cutting plants and leaving them in rows for wind and sun to dry properly).

soyabean

Soybean is mature for harvest when most leaves have aged and turned yellow at least one pod per plant has turned brown or black. The pods are still green yet filled with seeds for vegetable soybeans. Take the following steps when harvesting soybeans:

·         The plants are cut near the ground or pulled with their roots once threshed

·          Dry the soybeans to below 12 % moisture content before storing.

·         Keep in a clean store and prevent weevil attack by any of the means described under storage pests.

Most small scale farmers achieve yields of about 500-1000 kg/ha; though 3000 kg/ha is possible with good husbandry practices and recommended varieties[5].

 

 

Economic potential

As human population increases, so does our need for protein. As we grow from babies to adults, we have a great primary requirement for protein.

Worldwide consumption of soybean is nearly 11 million tons. Africa consumes about 618,000 tons annually, and uses another 4,800 tons for animal feed. Nigeria is the largest consumer of soybeans in sub-Sahara Africa followed by Uganda.

 (Ajay et al. 2011)[6] concludes that soybean is an excellent source of high quality protein with a low content in saturated fat, with no cholesterol, and a great amount of dietary fiber. Therefore, the possible use of soybean in functional food design is very promising, since the consumption of soybean protein and dietary fibre seems to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases

Nigeria currently produces soybean worth $85 million in the international market and though most of the nation’s soybean is consumed locally where they are used in the production of soymilk and specially formulated foods to help malnourished infants and children, the international market for the product is growing and sustainable[7].

GENERAL INFORMATION

Production

World production of soybeans has increased by a factor of eight in the last half century to reach its present level of over 100 million metric tons per year. The leading producers are the U.S.A. (45%), Brazil (20%) and China (12%). Much of this phenomenal growth was due to the sharp increase in the U.S.A. production between 1950 and 1970, and to the introduction of the soybean to Brazilian agriculture in the sixties[8].

Twenty-one African countries now produce soybean. Nigeria has the highest 6-year (2000-05) average production of 486,000 tons on an area of 553,260 hectares, followed by South Africa with 205,270 tons from 122,870 hectares, and Uganda with 155,500 tons from 139,500 hectares[9]. Nigeria presently produces about 500,000 Metric tonnes of soybean annually making it the largest producer of the product on the African continent.[10]

Improved Varieties

IITA in collaboration with National Cereal Research Institute (NCRI) developed a new variety tagged TGX 1835-10E and was released to farmers in 2009. This variety aside from being resistant to the Asian rust, the variety is also high-yielding, averaging 1655 kg/ha grain and 2210 kg/ha fodder in field trials in Nigeria. It is also early-maturing, has good promiscuous nodulation character, and resists pod shattering and other prevalent diseases when compared to the local variety[11]. Subsequent development by these agencies resulted in the introduction of three new varieties in Nigeria and Malawi (2011). These varieties (TGx1740-2E, TGx1987-10F, and TGx1987-62F) outperformed the standard and local checks grown in the two countries, offering high grain yield in multiple locations under on-station and on-farm trials. In Nigeria, medium-maturing varieties TGx1987-10F and TGx1987-62F proved highly resistant to Rust, Bacterial Blight, and Cercospora Leaf spot. The varieties are preferred by many farmers because they smother weeds and reduce the cost of weeding[12].

 

 

References

 


[1] Courtesy: www.iita.org

[3] Culled from: The seed ambassador&-8217;s project

[4] Culled from: www.iita.org

[6]  Opportunity, Challenge and Scope of Natural Products in Medicinal Chemistry, 2011: 367-383 ISBN: 978-81-308-0448-4. Online at  Research Signpost

[8] Culled from : http://www.fao.org

[9] Culled from: http://r4dreview.org

[11] Courtesy: www.iita.org

 
 

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All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. webforums.club makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, correctness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis.

sugarcane

sugarcane &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-16 07:09:31 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

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Introduction

sugarcane

www.cantonteaco.com

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), is a specie of the tall perennial true grass and belongs to the grass family Poaceae. Sugarcane is one of the valuable crops grown in the world and this is as a result of its strategic position and its varied use both for individual and industrial reasons. Sugar cane accounts for about 60-80% of the world sugar production.

Sugarcane is indigenous to tropical south and south-east Asia, but can be successfully grown in other areas. As at 2012, an estimate of 1.86 billion tons of sugarcane was harvested from 26 million hectares of land cultivated. Currently, Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane followed by India, China, Thailand, Pakistan and Mexico.

Propagation

Basic requirement

Sugarcane grows and thrives in a variety of soils, but it grows best in deep, well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter with a pH of between 5.0 and 8.0. Sugarcane is suited to tropical and subtropical regions, with high temperature 26-330C, radiation and sufficient annual rainfall between 1500 and 2500mm. In Nigeria, sugarcane can be cultivated in Kwara, Niger, Kano, Kaduna, Kastina, Jigawa, Taraba, Sokoto and Adamawa and in the absence of sufficient rainfall in these regions, artificial irrigation should be provided.

Planting

Sugarcane is an asexual plant hence it is majorly propagated by planting vegetative cutting or materials such as setts (stem cuttings or sections of a stalk) or settlings (cane setts with roots or shoots). In propagation using setts, healthy sugarcane plants should be selected( preferably, long and thick stems about 40cm long), then the sugarcane stems should be split into foot-long pieces called ‘setts’ after these, furrows or trenches about 4-inches deep should be dug and the sett planted horizontally in the furrows.

Pest and Diseases

Sugarcane is susceptible to pest and disease attack throughout its growth process, these attacks are of economic importance as they affect the quantity and the quality of yield, hence they must be eliminated or reduced to the barest minimum. The best method is prevention and that is achieved by eliminating causative factors such as water- logging, nitrogen build up, lodging etc. and in cases with the emergence of pests and diseases, appropriate treatment with pesticide and fungicide should commence. Listed below are some of the most common pest and diseases of the sugarcane.

Earlyshoot borer- this insect attacks the sugarcane during its early state before the formation of the internode.

Internode borer- this insect attacks the crop soon after the internodes are formed and the attack continues until harvest is done.

Pyrilla (Pyrilla purpusilla Walker)- is the most destructive foliage sucking pest of sugarcane, heavy rainfall, high humidity, high temperature and wind movement are major factors that favours Pyrilla multiplication.

Red Rot (Colletotrichum Falcatum)- is the most dreaded disease of the sugarcane, that has caused the loss of some important varieties. The most significant or characteristics sign of this disease is the presence of reddish discoloured patches or lesions interspersed with white horizontal patches on the internal tissue.

Ratoon stunting disease- is the most important cause for sugarcane varietal degeneration, this disease leads to progressive decline in yield and germination.

Harvesting

Sugarcane can be harvested manually or using mechanized tools. In manual harvesting, the field is set on fire to burn dry leaves and also chase or kill snakes hiding in the plantation, this leaves the water rich stalks and root unharmed. The cane is then cut a little above ground-level with a machete or cane knife, the disadvantage of this method is if carried out by unskilled workers, loss of cane & sugar yield, poor juice quality and others difficulties may arise. In big plantations, harvesting is carried out by mechanised harvesters.

Prospects of Sugarcane Farming in Nigeria

Nigeria is the second largest consumer of sugar in Africa, and her sugar consumption accounts for 50% of the sugar consumed in West Africa, with her consumption rate still on the increase. Also, as at 2013, Nigeria has a sugar refining capacity of 2.1 million tonnes and even boasts of the largest sugar refining plant in Africa, yet most of the raw materials (raw brown sugar) used are imported from Brazil at the cost of about $500 million per annum. In view of this, one wonders why sugarcane is not being  planted in larger quantities in Nigeria? Nigeria has about 500,000 hectares of land suitable for cultivating sugarcane (both Industrial sugarcane and domestic sugarcane) and these land can produce 5 million metric tonnes of sugarcane which when processed gives about 3 million metric tonnes of sugar.

Hence there is prospect of sustained sugarcane cultivation in Nigeria, also the government in a bid to encourage local cultivation of sugarcane and processing of sugarcane to raw sugar, has provided some incentives to producers and those in the sugar value chain which includes a 5 year tax free holiday for investors in the sugar value chain.

Investment opportunity in sugarcane cultivation

Although, Nigeria has the largest sugar refinery in Africa, there are few milling plant hence most of it raw materials are imported, as such we lose out on by-product such as bagasse which is also very useful. Bagasse is the fiber that remains after the juice of the sugar cane has been extracted. It used as biofuel and in the manufacturing of paper and building materials. Hence, investment in the sugarcane value chain in Nigeria includes but is not limited to sugarcane cultivation, sugarcane mills and ethanol plants.

Importance and uses of sugarcane

Sugarcane is an extremely important crop as its products are some of the world’s most consumed or used products. Below are some of the products from sugarcane.

Sugar is one of the most consumed substance in the world, and 70% of world sugar production comes from sugarcane.

Ethanol gotten from sugarcane is more energy efficient than other crop based ethanol, and is used majorly as biofuel.

Bagasse, the fibrous material left after the extraction of sugar cane juice is also used as biofuel (heat and power) and for making pulp and building materials. Sugar mills can be powered by bagasse generated electricity.

Molasses, a by-product of sugarcane juice extraction process is used in making rum.

Sugarcane is also used locally for making drinks.

Why invest in Sugarcane

Sugarcane farming is a lucrative venture under the right conditions. Opportunities abound in cultivating it because its products are of immense value and importance to man.

Sugarcane is one of the most cultivated plants in the world.

It can be harvested up to 10 times before replanting.

There is a continuous and growing market for its produce globally.

There is also a 5 year tax free holiday for investors in Nigeria.

There is renewed interest in sugarcane cultivation with government releasing the sum of N26bn to resuscitate the Sunti sugar company.

With the world turning to eco-friendly fuel options, oil companies such as Royal Dutch Shell and British Petroleum (BP) have also invested in the sugarcane industry for its energy efficient ethanol. Also with the current low price of crude oil, sugarcane is a viable business to venture into as an alternative to crude oil.

With almost $500 million being spent in importing raw sugar, sugarcane cultivation in Nigeria is a promising venture.

Constraints

Sugarcane is susceptible to attacks from pests and diseases.

Varieties with high yield are not locally available.

References

Onwueme IC (2005). Crop Science: Tropical Agricultural Series.

TNI Agrarian Justice Programme ( June 2013): ‘ The sugarcane industry and the global economic crisis’.

http://www.fao.org/3/a-at584e.pdf

www.mbendi.com

www.sugarcanecrops.com

www.thisdaylive.com

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugarcane

 

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All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. webforums.club makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, correctness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis.

 

Groundnut

Groundnut &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-16 07:09:29 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

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GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea)

groundnut

Groundnut or Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a major crop grown in the arid and semi-arid zone of Nigeria. It is either grown for its nut, oil or its vegetative residue (haulms). Recently, the use of groundnut meal is becoming more recognized not only as a dietary supplement for children on protein poor cereals-based diets but also as effective treatment for children with protein related malnutrition.

It is the 13th most important food crop of the world and the 4th most important source of edible oil. Its seeds contain high quality edible oil (50%), easily digestible protein (25%) and carbohydrates (20%) (FAO, 1994)[1].

The crop is mainly grown in the northern part of Nigeria; over 85% of the groundnuts produced in the country were accounted for by Kano, Kaduna, Taraba, Bauchi, Bornu, and Adamawa states (Abal and Harkness, 1978)[2]

 

Importance

 Peanut sauce, prepared with onions, garlic, peanut butter/paste, and vegetables such as carrots, cabbage, and cauliflower, can be vegetarian (the peanuts supplying ample protein) or prepared with meat, usually chicken.

Peanuts are used in the Mali meat stew “maafe”. In Ghana, peanut butter is used for peanut butter soup nkate nkwan. Crushed peanuts may also be used for peanut candies nkate cake and kuli-kuli, as well as other local foods such as oto. Peanut butter is also an ingredient in Nigeria&-8217;s &-8220;African salad&-8221;. Peanut powder is an important ingredient in the spicy coating for kebabs in Nigeria and Ghana.

 Peanuts are also used in a wide variety of other areas, such as[3]

·         Biodiesel fuel

·         Peanut laxatives

·         Peanut dye

·         Peanut shampoo

·         Peanut insecticide

·         Peanut explosives

·         Peanut glue

Cultivation

Groundnut is grown in a well-drained sandy loam, or sandy clay loam soil. Deep well drained soil with high fertility. An optimum soil temperature for good germination is 30oC. it is usually grown in rotation with cereals as it help in efficient nutrient utilization and reduces soil borne diseases.

Land preparation should ensure that all crop residues and weeds are completely buried; ploughing and harrowing are also carried out to make a seed bed of fine tilth for proper germination and growth of crops. It could be sown on ridge or on flat. The recommended spacing for groundnut is 75 cm between the rows and 25 cm between the plants within the rows[4]. Fertilizer can be applied at the rate of 54 kg/ha P2 O5 and 25 kg/ha K2O for good crop production; and can be applied before or immediately after planting[5].

Planting should be done as soon as possible after the onset of the rains. Early planting is recommended to avoid rosette attack.

Pest and diseases

The major pests attacking groundnut include: groundnut borer, red flour beetle, almond moth, termite, white grub, jassid, aphid, tobacco caterpillar etc.

There are a number of diseases that affect the crop some of which include: groundnut rosette, groundnut streak, bacteria wilt, anthracnose, fusarium wilt, pod rot etc.

Groundnut rosette disease is one of the most destructive diseases of groundnut in sub-Saharan Africa, which is transmitted by Aphids, although rosette epidemics are sporadic, yield losses approach 100% whenever the disease occurs in epidemic proportions. For example, an epidemic in northern Nigeria destroyed approximately 0.75 million hectares of groundnut with an estimated loss of US$250 million in regional trade (Yayock et al. 1976)[6].

However, significant research has since develop preventive and control measures to ensure good production and sustained yield. Leading to the development of 23 new varieties, which were released in 2011; some of which are resistance to rosette and drought-resistant[7].

Harvest

Harvesting usually consists of a series of operations comprising digging, lifting, windrowing, stocking and threshing. Some of these tasks can be combined or eliminated depending on the system applied. Among the field operations concerned with groundnut cultivation, harvesting is the most laborious and costly endeavor. Harvesting should be done when the crop reached physiological maturity i.e., when a few leaves turned brown and the inner ribs of the groundnut were a pronounced brown in color. All the pods are recovered when pulled out of the soil.

 Harvesting may sometimes become a problem especially when the crop has passed the stage of full maturity and the soil has hardened. An appreciable number of pods could be lost if not meticulously carried out; which make the harvest labor intensive.

Constraints

Inconsistencies in government policies as regards production, transportation and marketing of groundnut in Nigeria, which the government was actively involve before the disappearance of the groundnut pyramid of the North, has been identified as the major setback over the years for the crop which shows much prospect for development of the economy; as does in the past.

Storage

After cleaning and grading, the dried pod could be stored in bags and stacked up to 10 bags high in separated stacks to allow air circulation among them. The bags should be piled on wooden planks to avoid damage from dampness.

Economic potential

Nigeria is one of the countries of the world with a variety of oil seeds notably groundnut, oil palm, soybean and cotton seeds. Vegetable oils are used principally for food (mostly as shortening, margarines, and salad and cooking oils) and in the manufacture of soap and other products.

Groundnut is by far the most nutritive oil-seed used in West Africa. The kernels have an average fat and protein content of 75% and an energy value of 360 kcal/100g, compared to 60% and 430 kcal/100 g for soybeans.

In Nigeria, Groundnut provides high quality cooking oil and is an important source of protein for both human and animal diet and also provides much needed foreign exchange by exporting kernels and cake (Nautiyal, 1999)[8]. As population continues to grow the demand for edible oil in many developing countries such as Nigeria will also continue to grow. Groundnut will continue to be important in satisfying this growing demand because it is adaptable to a wide range of environments from sandy soils of the Sahel to favorable irrigated areas.

General information

Production                                         

Nigeria is the fourth largest producer in the world and the highest producer in Africa with 1.55 million metric tons.[9]

Peanuts grow best in light, sandy loam soil. They require five months of warm weather, and an annual rainfall of 500 to 1,000 mm (20 to 39 in) or the equivalent in irrigation water[10].

                                  Agriculture Nigeria: groundnut field

The pods ripen 120 to 150 days after the seeds are planted. If the crop is harvested too early, the pods will be unripe. If they are harvested late, the pods will snap off at the stalk, and will remain in the soil.[11]

They need an acidic soil to grow preferably with 5.9-7 PH.

In tropical Africa, average yield of groundnut range from 300-1000kg/ha; with god management practice and proper disease control yields up to 5tones/ha can be achieved.

Groundnut oil

Over half of the groundnut harvested worldwide is crushed for oil and a substantial quantity of groundnut produced in developing countries is traded in domestic markets. International trade of groundnuts is mainly in the form of in shell (pods), shelled (kernels) and meal (cake). A large trade of confectionery groundnut is also booming in the international market.

Groundnut oil has traditionally been a significant dietary component in several countries in Western Africa. In some countries like Nigeria, Gambia and Senegal, oil extraction has been important rural cottage industry for many years. Industrial processing of oil from groundnuts exists in many countries like, India, Sudan, Senegal, Nigeria and Gambia. Oil extraction at the village level is still quite common throughout the developing countries

 

References

 


[1] FAO, 1994. Expert’s recommendations on fats and oils in human nutrition. The article is adapted from the first chapter of fats and oils in human nutrition: report of joint expert consultation, FAO Food and Nutrition Paper No. 57

[2] Abalu, G.O.I and Harkness, C. (1979). “Traditional verses improved Groundnut production in Northern Nigeria” (Expt. Agric. Vol 15(1) pp 85- 90)

[3] Courtesy of  Life Hackery

[6] Yayock, J.Y., H.W. Rossel, and C. Harkness. 1976. A review of the 1975 groundnut rosette epidemic in Nigeria. Samaru Conference Paper 9. Institute for Agricultural Research (Samaru).

[8] Nautiyal, P.C., 1999. Groundnut: Post harvest operation. National Research Centre for Groundnut, pp: 46. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/inpho/docs/Post_Harvest_Compendium_-_Groundnut.pdf.

[9] Culled from USDA www.fas.usda.gov

[10] Jauron, Richard (1997-02-05). &-8220;Growing Peanuts in the Home Garden | Horticulture and Home Pest News&-8221;. Ipm.iastate.edu. Retrieved 2011-05-30.

[11]  &-8220;How peanuts are Grown – Harvesting – PCA&-8221;. Peanut Company of Australia. Archived from the original on July 19, 2008. Retrieved 2011-05-30.

 

 

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All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. webforums.club makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, correntness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis.

 

 

Sesame

Sesame &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-16 07:09:29 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

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SESAME SEED

 

sesame

Black Sesame Seed Plant (image courtesy www.aliexpress.com)

Introduction:

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L) is an annual flowering plant which is cultivated for its seeds, grows in pods and is believed to be the oldest cultivated oilseed in the world. Although with a doubtful origin, it is widely believed to have originated from Africa. Sesame is often called by different names based on the location, some of its common names are Benniseed, Gingilly, Simsim, Tahini, and Til. Sesame was introduced to Nigeria after the Second World War and was mostly cultivated as a minor crop in the Northern and Central part of Nigeria until 1974 when it began to gain prominence as a major cash crop. Although sesame cultivation is on the increase in terms of areas cultivated, its full potential is yet to be explored in Nigeria due to lack of local farmers adherence to best farm practices suitable to its growth.                                                      

Importance:

Sesame ranks eighth in the world production of edible oil seeds, with higher oil content than other oilseed crops. It is grown mainly for its seeds that contain approximately 50% oil and 25% protein. The presence of some antioxidants (sesamum, sesamolin, and sesamol) makes the oil one of the most stable vegetable oils in the world. In addition to having high oil content. Sesame seed is known for its nutritional and medicinal qualities. The seed contains all essential amino acids and fatty acids and it is a good source of vitamins (pantothenic acid and vitamin E) and minerals such as calcium (1450 mg/100g) and phosphorous (570 mg/100g).   

Cultivation and Suitable Farm Practices for Optimal Performance of Sesame in Nigeria

The potential for sesame cultivation in Nigeria is very high as an estimated 3.5 million hectares of the country’s agricultural land are suitable for the production of sesame seed. Sesame seed should be cultivated on a fairly flat and well-drained loam or loamy soil with a pH range of 5.5-6.7 and at a soil depth of 1.5-2.5cm, depending on the ecological zone, planting should be done between March/April to Mid July/ August. Planting on flatbed should be with inter-row and intra-row spacing of 60cm x 10 cm at a seed rate of 4 kg/ha when drilling or 5 kg/ha when broadcasting. Constant weeding should be carried out for the first 25 days after planting as young seedlings are poor competitors with seed. Thinning should be done three weeks after planting (WAP) to about 2 plants per stand along the roll. This is for optimal maintenance and to avoid problems associated with high density.

Cultivars of Sesame Seed adapted to Nigeria.

For optimal performance and yield in Nigeria, five cultivars of sesame seed are advocated for use. They are namely

NCRIBEN O1m (530-6-10) with a potential yield of 1000 kg/ha and oil content of 45%

NCRIBEN-o2M Type 4with a potential yield of 750 kg/ha and oil content 45%

NCRIBENO-31 (Goza-25) with a potential yield of 600 kg/ha and oil content of 40%

E8 with a potential yield of 1000 kg/ha and oil content of 50%

Yandev-55 with a potential yield of 600 kg/ha and 45%

Pest and Diseases

Sesame seed like most plant comes under attack by diseases and pest, sesame seed is often attacked by insects, nematodes, fungi, bacteria and weed. Most of these attacks can cause a great reduction in yield and quality. Common diseases of the sesame seed are: Cercospora sesame which causes leaf rot, Fusarium sp which causes leaf rot, collar rot, and sudden death e.t.c.

Controlling the diseases can be done by firstly verifying the extent to which the damage has being done, then applying suitable remedies.

Harvesting and processing

Harvesting and processing are key aspects of cultivation as it has a bearing on the yield and quality of the seed. Hence, Sesame seed is best harvested when 50% of its capsules turns yellow, delaying harvesting might result in seed shattering and loss. Manual harvesting is currently being practised in Nigeria whereby the stem is being cut with a sickle in order to prevent contamination with soil. 70% percent of the sesame seed grown are exported as seed because there is no major processing facility for oil extraction. Locally consumed sesame seed are processed by different manual means.

Uses and By-product of Sesame

The use of the sesame seed are wide and varied, and are dependent on the parts of the seed being processed. These are some of the uses and by-product of the sesame seed.

The sesame seed is used in confectioneries, biscuits and in bread making.

Oil extracts from sesame seed has a wide range of application; it is used for cooking, used in medicine for treating ulcer and burns, used in making aerosols and in manufacturing margarine.

Also, low-grade oil is used locally in manufacturing soap paints, lubricants, and illuminants.

The by-product gotten from processing sesame seed is used in making animal feeds.

Beyond these listed applications, sesame is also used in different countries for their local dishes and delicacies.

Advantages and reasons to grow sesame

Sesame is one of the most versatile crops that can be grown in dry arid regions.

It has unique attributes that can fit most cropping systems. ƒ

It is an easy crop to consider producing because equipment used for other crops can be used to grow sesame. ƒ

Sesame is more profitable with limited resources than other crops using the same level of resources.

It offers more return for less cost (less risk) than other crops.

A first-time grower can easily experiment with sesame because of the low input requirements without risking too much.

sesame seed

Sesame Seed (image courtesy www.backyarddiva.ca)

Opportunities for Investment in Sesame in Nigeria

In 2013, 4.8 million metric tonnes of sesame seed was harvested with the lead producer being Myanmar, but as at 2012 Nigeria only harvested 158,000 metric tonnes. Although Nigeria became the biggest exporter of sesame to Japan (the largest importer of sesame) in 2001, the full potential of sesame cultivation in Nigeria is yet to be achieved.|There are two major opportunities for sesame seed cultivation in Nigeria and they are:

Cultivation of sesame seed for export purposes: about 118,000 metric tonnes of sesame seed was exported in 2012, making it the third largest products Nigeria exported in 2012. With sesame seed still in demand globally and with vast areas of land suitable for its cultivation. Sesame seed is a viable investment opportunity.

Processing facilities: currently, the sesame market in Nigeria has few cleaning facilities and no de-hulling facility. A processing plant will help make seeds meet international standards and help with pricing.

Available Markets

Nigeria exports 70% of its sesame seed to Japan but according to FAO, sesame seed is imported into over 100 countries ( with particular emphasis on Asian countries), thus creating a vast and untapped market for Nigerian sesame seeds.

Financial Implication

In 2010, Nigeria exported 140,850 metric tonnes of sesame seed grossing an income of $139,000,000, considering the fact that sesame cultivation in Nigeria is a small holder affair, there is a huge potential for farmers, who know what they are doing to make a lot of money from investing in Sesame seed cultivation.

Constraints and Challenges of Cultivating of Sesame Seed in Nigeria

Although sesame cultivation is a business worth venturing into, it does have some challenges which can pose a threat to the unprepared. They are as follows;

Its yield per hectare is small when compared to other oilseed.

Absence of proper processing plants that can enhance the quality of seeds, especially for export.

Commodity pricing can be unpredictable and prone to fluctuations.

Sesame seed cultivated in Nigeria is limited to only oil extraction and animal feed once exported because confectionary and bakery users have specific seed attributes and requirement such as colour and flavour which the Nigerian sesame seed does not meet.

 

 

 

References

Balasubramaniyan, P. and S.P. Palaniappan. 2001. “Field Crops: An Overview”. In:Principles  and Practices of Agronomy. Agrobios, India

Burden D (2005). Sesame Profile. http//www.cropprofile.mht.Accessed on 26/8/2009.

Chemonic (2002). Overview of the Nigerian sesame industry. A paper prepared by  Chemonic International Incorporation for United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington D.C.

FAO. 2012. “Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nation”. FAOSTAT Database available online  http://faostat fao.org/site/567/default.aspx (28.08.2013).  

National Agricultural Extension And Research Liaison Services Federal Ministry Of Agriculture And Water Resources Ahmadu Bello University, “Beniseed production and utilisation in Nigeria”. In: Extension Bulletin No. 154 Horticulture Series No.5. Zaira.

U.A. Umar, A.H. Muntaqa, M.B. Muhammad and H.J. Jantar (2014). “Review of Sesame Seed Production and Export in Nigeria (2003 to 2012). In :The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology.

 

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Cotton

Cotton &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-16 07:09:28 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

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                                                                                                  COTTON (Gossypium species)

                                                  Agriculture Nigeria: cotton

INTRODUCTION

Cotton as a major cash crop is of considerable social and economic importance to Nigeria. Cotton/textile activities are widespread in the country. Its production in Nigeria dates back to 1903 with the British Cotton Growers Association taking the lead until 1974, when it was disbanded and replaced by the Cotton Marketing Board to develop, gin and market the produce.  Cotton is a soft and fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or a protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose.

The plant is shrub that is native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds.

The fiber is most often spun into a yarn or thread to make a soft breathable fabric.

There are four commercially grown species of cotton; and they include;

Gossypium hirsutum

Gossypium barbadense

Gossypium arboreum

Gossypium herbaceum

HISTORY

Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries and beyond.[i]

CULTIVATION

Successful cultivation of cotton requires a long frost-free period, plenty of sunshine, and a moderate rainfall, usually from 600 to 1200 mm (24 to 48 inches). Soils usually need to be fairly heavy, although the level of nutrients does not need to be exceptional. In general, these conditions are met within the seasonally dry tropics and subtropics in the Northern and Southern areas, but a large proportion of the cotton grown today is cultivated in areas with less rainfall that obtain the water from irrigation. Planting time in the Northern areas varies from the beginning of February to the beginning of June. Since cotton is salt and drought tolerant, this makes it an attractive crop for arid and semiarid region.[ii]

HARVESTING

Cotton is usually harvested mechanically, either by a cotton picker, a machine that removes the cotton from the boll without damaging the cotton plant, or by a cotton stripper, which strips the entire boll off the plant. Cotton strippers are used in regions where it is too windy to grow picker varieties of cotton, and usually after application of a chemical defoliant or the natural defoliation that occurs after a freeze. Cotton is a perennial crop that is grown in the tropics, and without defoliation or freezing, the plant will continue to grow. Cotton is also harvested / picked by hand.[iii]

USES

Today, the world uses more cotton than any other fiber, Processing and handling of cotton after it leaves the farm generates even more business activity.

          Cotton is a part of our daily lives from the time we dry our faces on a soft cotton towel in the morning until we slide between fresh cotton sheets at night. It has hundreds of uses, from blue jeans to shoe strings. Clothing and household items are the largest uses, but industrial products account for many thousands of bales. All parts of the cotton plant are useful. The most important is the fiber or lint, which is used in making cotton cloth. Linters, provide cellulose for making plastics and other products. Linters also are incorporated into high quality paper products and processed into batting for padding mattresses, furniture and automobile cushions.[iv]

         Some cottonseeds also are used as high-protein concentrate in baked goods and other food products. The cotton seed is also used to make the cotton seed oil, which after processing can be used and consumed as any normal vegetable oil. The left over from the cotton milling can also be used to feed livestock ruminant animals.[v]. Cotton lint can be refined into cotton wools which are used as absorbent cotton.

 

ECONOMIC POTENTIAL

The Federal Government in September 2012 released N54 billion to boost mass production of cotton in the country. To further demonstrate its commitment to improve cotton production, the Federal Government signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the West African Cotton Company (WACOT) on plans to revive cotton production in the country. The agreement with WACOT was aimed at enhancing the productivity of the ginneries from 150kg to 450kg of lint, while increasing the production of cotton seeds from 120,000 tonnes to 760,000 tonnes by the year 2015. The West Africa Cotton Development Company Limited (WACOT) has begun an awareness and training of farmers on modern agronomic practices.

The aim of the programme is to restore Nigeria’s fortune in the area of cotton production. The training in Gombe of about 900 cotton farmers, according to the Project Leader Dr. Laxman Dhayal, started last year with a target of 15, 000 hectares of land cultivated, but realized an input of over 13, 000 hectares. The project leader said: “The programme is important in this scientific world in order to improve on the quality and production capacity of cotton in Nigeria. The programme is aimed at bringing back the glory of cotton farming and production in Nigeria.” He further added that the future looks bright for improvement. [vi]

CONSTRAINTS

The major consequence of neglect of the agricultural sector in Nigeria during the oil boom years (1970-1980s) was the decline in total food and fibre production and the astronomical rise in input prices. These general problems of agricultural sector also affect the cotton industries which has hitherto played an important role in the economy. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important cash crop in Nigeria. Until recently, cotton was the fifth most important export crop and a major source of foreign exchange for the country.

Unfortunately, total production remains far below the national requirements of the textile and the oil mills. This is as a result of low average yield of the crop on farmers plot of about 400-500 kg seed cotton per hectare which is below the genetic yield potential (2.5-3.0) tons seed cotton/ha, of the varieties being grown and yield that are obtainable on research plots (1.5-2.5 tons ha-1) (Ogunlela, 2004).[vii]

The major constraints facing cotton farmers are lack of fertilizer, frequency of spray, market opportunities. Others are inadequate knowledge of the production packages and non-availability of these technologies.

Pests and diseases also pose a great threat to cotton production in Nigeria. The most important group of insects in terms of economic costs is the bollworm. Certain cotton pest can also cause reduction of lint quality e.g Dysdercus sp. which causes discoloration of the cotton lint, and automatically represent a serious decline in quality and substantial reduction in price. Aphids, bacteria blight (Xanthmonas malvacearum F. Smith) dowson and alternaria leaf spot (alternaria macopora Zim) are all examples of insects that affect cotton yield in Nigeria.

 

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References                                        

[i] Cotton. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–07.

[ii] Wegerich, K. (2002). &-8220;Natural drought or human-made water scarcity in Uzbekistan?&-8221;. Central Asia and the Caucasus 2: 154–162.

[iii]  Craig Murray. Murder in Samarkand – A British Ambassador&-8217;s Controversial Defiance of Tyranny in the War on Terror. ISBN 978-1-84596-194-7. 2006

[v]  Liese M. Perrin (2001). &-8220;Resisting Reproduction: Reconsidering Slave Contraception in the Old South&-8221;. Journal of American Studies (Cambridge University Press) 35 (2): 255–274. doi:10.1017/S0021875801006612. JSTOR 27556967.

[vii] Ogunlela, V.B., 2004. Improved technologies for increased production in Nigeria. Proceedings of the Train the Trainer Workshop on Presidential Initiative on Vegetable Oils, Cotton and Groundnut Production, Lake Chad Research Institute May 10-12, Maiduguri. 

 

 

Disclaimer

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. webforums.club makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, correctness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis.