Kunun-zaki production

Kunun-zaki production &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-16 07:09:14 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

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                                                                 KUNUN ZAKI PRODUCTION

Kunu (also known as kununzaki) is a non-alcoholic beverage consumed throughout Nigeria, mostly in the north. It is usually made from grains such as millet, sorghum, or sometimes maize. The variety of the drink made from sorghum is a milky light-brown colour, whilst that which is made from millet and maize is whitish in colour. It is rich in vitamins especially B1 and B2 and also rich in essential mineral elements.

Kunun zaki drink is a very refreshing and drink but the traditionally processed kunun has a very short shelf -life hence requires adequate preservatives to make it shelf stable and of high keeping quality. The main raw materials (Sorghum, millet or a combination of both) are readily available in commercial quantities in the Nigeria, especially the Northern parts. To improve the shelf-life of kunun-zaki and make it available in a hygienic manner, various technological processes, and researches have been carried out by research institutes in Nigeria. 


The production and preservation of kunun-zaki include the following simple processing steps.

Sorting; the grains are sorted to obtain wholesome grain for processing

Weighing; the sorted grains are then weighed accurately

Washing and soaking; the weighed grains are washed thoroughly and soaked for about 24 hours

Washing and draining; the soaked grains are washed thoroughly again and allowed to drain

Wet milling; the grains are wet milled in a hammer mill (ginger, sweet potato or pepper is added)

Sieving; the wet milled grains are sieved with adequate quantity of potable water.

Heating; the filtrate after sieving is heated over a period of time

Addition of preservative; the right quantity of preservative and flavor are added followed by thorough mixing

Filteration; the kunun-zaki is filtered to remove suspended particles

Pasteurization; the kunun-zaki is subjected to heat treatment to destroy micro-organism, prevent fermentation and inhibit undesireable enzyme activities

Cooling and packaging; Pasteurized kunun-zaki is cooled to room temperature, bottled, labeled and packaged in cartons. And now ready for sale.


 The major raw material for kunun-zaki production is sorghum. Sodium Benzoate and sugar are used as preservatives and sweetener respectively.

The main items of supplies are packaging materials which include; plastic bottles, cartons and labels. The main utility items are electricity, water and diesel.


The machinery and equipment required for the production of kunun-zaki are; soaking tank, hammer mill, pasteurizer, kunu-zaki reactor, filling machine, vibro sifter, sedimentation tank, shrink wrapper and other accessories.

The cost and installation of the various machineries listed above for a 2,500 L kunu-zaki production/ day can be made on request.



Both skilled and unskilled labour are required for this project. For a small scale production, a total of about 47 workers are required for production, marketing, accounting and administration of the project.



The estimated total initial investment is  N 27,228,530.00. This consists of the initial fixed capital N 15,530,320.00 (Including factory building, machine and equipment, generator, project vehicle, office furniture and equipment and bore hole), initial working capital N 9,843,680.00 and pre-production expenses N 1,854,530.00.



A plot of land is adequate for the project but the actual factory construction could be 25m X 25m.



Production Days/Week                          :    6

Production Week/Annum                        :    50

Production Day/Annum                           :    300

Production Volume /Day                         :    2,500 litres or 5,000 Bottles (50cl)

Production Volume/Annum                     :    750,000 Litres or 1,500,00 Bottles (50cl)

Input Output                                          :   1kg (Sorghum) gives 8 Liters Kunu


PROFITABLITY                                                        N”000

Total revenue                                                            82,800.00

Total production cost                                                 72,783.00

Gross profit before tax                                               10,017.00

Tax @30%                                                               3,005.10

NET PROFIT                                                            7,011.90

Gross profit to sales                                                 12.90%

Net Profit to sales                                                     8.46%

Return on investment (Year 1)                                    25.75%       

Return on equity (Year 1)                                          64.38%

Payback Period                                                       1.2 years

Break – Even Point                                                   60.08%

Net Present Value                                                    1,565.24


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Culled from; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunu

Curtsey of Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, FIIRO; material on kunun-zaki production.




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