fish processing

REQUIREMENT FOR SETTING UP PROCESSING FACILITIES

REQUIREMENT FOR SETTING UP PROCESSING FACILITIES &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-16 07:09:03 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

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REQUIREMENTS FOR PROCESSING FACILITIES (Courtesy Dept of Fisheries)[i]

These guidelines provide an overview of the certification process and construction standards as specified in the fish quality Assurance and inspection regulations.

·         To specify the food safety and quality criteria required to be put in place in a seafood processing plants and fish farm for approval.

·         To ensure uniformity of application of standards.

·         To assist fish farmers and fish processors to comply with the provisions of the sea fisheries (Fish Inspection and Quality Assurance Regulations) 1995 and observe Best Aquaculture practices (BAP)standard

Prospective investors should note that all processing and fish farm must be registered and approved by the Federal department of fisheries to ensure compliance with the provisions of the sea fisheries (Fish Inspection and Quality Assurance Regulations) 1995 and observe Best Aquaculture practices (BAP) standard.

Requirements for certification/approval as stipulated by The Department of Fisheries are summarized as follows:

Plant Location, Building and Layout

Before deciding plant location different factors should be analyzed. 

1.       The most important is the plot which should be of adequate size for both present needs and future development. 

2.        The plant should be close to public transport such as rail or road.

3.       Access to electricity, water, and steam is essential. 

4.      Waste disposal should be considered when planning the plant location.  The owner should coordinate all the works with local competent authorities in order to avoid problems in the future.  The choice of plant location should also take into account the neighboring surroundings: for example, location near to a waste dump could lead to microbiological contamination caused by birds.

5.       Drains must be located appropriately in all processing areas. Slope must be adequate to ease the flow of waste water. Waste water should be treated before being discharged into community sewage system or to an approved onsite disposal system or soak-away system.

6.      A well designed building should comprise sufficient space for work to be conducted out under adequate hygienic conditions, an area for machinery, equipment and storage, separation of operations that might contaminate food, adequate natural or artificial lighting, ventilation, and protection against pests.

7.       There are many technical regulations concerning construction of buildings and processing halls; e.g., outside walls, windows and doors should be constructed such that they are water, insect-and rodent-proof.  The inside walls of the building should be painted white or other light colour and their surface should be smooth, fall-safe, corrosion- proof and easy to clean. Floors should be resistant to spillage of products, water and disinfectants.  They should be slip-proof and maintain their colour. Experience shows that selection and preparation of the floor is one of the most difficult tasks facing the designer. The main problem, however, lies in appropriate general layout and arrangements of rooms which must minimize the risk of contamination of the final product.

8.      The work areas have to be in adequate size to enable hygienic processing and plant cleaning.

9.      Plants and machines must not be positioned against the wall, for example if there is a risk of their becoming dirty on the wall- side.

10.    The arrangement of the rooms and work areas must be such that hygienically clean areas and products within them are separate from unclean areas. The process of killing the fish, for example, must take place in an area separate from all other processing stages. Thus separation of these areas has to be complete and there should be no movement of people or equipment from unclean to clean area.

11.    As far as possible, product flow should be arranged so that no intersections occur. Otherwise, there is a risk of products with a low germ count after smoking, for example coming into contact with a higher germ count (risk of cross-contamination).  Ideally, incoming products, raw materials, storage, processing, packaging and dispatch should take place step by step from one end of the plant to another without products from different production stages intersecting one another. Even in older premises it is usually possible to achieve a suitable organization to work processes through the use of partitions to avoid cross-contamination. Such processes are also generally the most efficient solutions.

12.    Water supply must be adequate and sufficient for processing and cleaning purpose. Water must be tested/ analyzed at least twice in a year in an approved laboratory for compliance with drinking water standard.

13.    Toilet rooms must not have direct access to processing area and sufficient for personal use. Toilets walls and floors should be made light colored preferably tilled

The diagram below shows the prototype arrangement for a food processing company:

·         Cross-contamination is avoided and clean areas are strictly separate from unclean areas.

·         Proper layout and designs should ensure an uninterrupted and “straight line” process flow, and should meet other requirements listed below:  

                   I.            All functions should avoid zigzagging and backtracking

                II.            Visitors should move from unclean to clean area

             III.            Conditioned (chilled) air and drainage should flow from clean to unclean areas

·         The flow of discarded outer packing material should not cross the flow of either unwrapped ingredients or finished product

·         There should be sufficient space for plant operations including processing, cleaning and maintenance; space is also required for movement of materials and pedestrians

·         Operations are separated as necessary.  There are clear advantages in minimizing the number of interior walls since this simplifies the movement of materials and employees, simplified supervision, and reduces the area of wall that needs cleaning and maintenance.

Prototype Arrangement Of A Food/Fish Processing Plant

The proper design and arrangement of the processing plant greatly influence food production hygiene. 

Equipment

Council Directive 89/392/EEC of 14 June 1989 (EEC 1989) on regulations concerning machinery safety and hygiene contains the following most important requirements[ii]:

• Machinery containing materials intended to come in contact with food must be designed and constructed to that these materials can be cleaned each time they are used

• All surfaces and joints must be smooth, with no ridges or crevices that could harbor organic materials

• Assembly must be designed so as to minimize projections, edges and recesses; they should be constructed by welding or continuous bonding, with screws, screw heads and rivets used only where technically unavoidable

• Contact surfaces must be easy to clean and disinfect, and be built with easily dismantle parts; inside surfaces must be curved so as to allow thorough cleaning

• Liquid derived from foods, and cleaning, disinfecting and rinsing fluids should easy to discharge from machinery

• Machinery must be designed and constructed to prevent liquids or living creatures – primarily insects – from entering and accumulating in areas that cannot be cleaned

• Machinery must be designed and constructed to avoid ancillary substances, such as lubricants, coming into contact with food.

Smoking as a Typical Example

1.       Smoking must take place in a separate room or area separated from the rest of production.

2.       Ventilation is necessary if smoke or exhaust heat from smoke generation penetrates the other rooms in which fishery products are handled, processed or stored.

3.       Chimney must be located appropriately to remove excess smoke and heat.

4.       The materials used for smoke generation must be stored outside the smoking room and used in such a way as to rule out any contamination of the fishery products.  Wood which has been treated with paint, varnish, glue or other chemical preservative is not permitted for use in smoke generation.

5.       If the smoking process also serves to kill parasites core temperature of the fishery products has to be at least +60oC.

6.      If, after smoking, the fishery products are not destined for immediate further processing, they have to be cooled to the temperature required for the maintenance of their tradability while preventing any loss in quality.  Only then are they ready for packaging.

7.       As a rule a separate chilling room will be necessary for the ready smoked products. Too slow cooling under unhygienic conditions (air germ content) leads to recontamination and perceptible germ multiplication compared with the previously low-germ smoked products.

8.      Dry storage Area: packaging materials shall be of a food grade and must be stored in a clean and dry room. Chemicals used for cleaning and other cleaning materials must not be stored in the same room with packaging materials.

 

Labeling storage and packaging

Labeling must be in compliance with the regulations and must be approved by Federal department of fisheries before use. label must include date of production, expiry date (shelf life) details of producer/processor, batch numbers, storage conditions, nutrition facts label should be printed directly on packaging materials and cartons.

Production controls (HACCP PLAN)

 All processing plant and fish farm must be HACCP based therefore HACCP plan (i.e document development) must be submitted to Federal department of fisheries before approval can be granted.

Procedure for export of finished product:

a)      All export products must be from approved farm and processing plant

b)      Application for sampling/analysis of product must be forwarded to Fish Quality Assurance and Fish Disease Management Division of Federal Department of Fisheries

c)      Health certificate must be obtained for each lot to be exported.

d)     Stuffing must be carried out in the presence of the Fisheries inspector.

 

 

References

 


[i] Information on this page is credited to The Federal Department of Fisheries Nigeria.

[ii] Compiled by Akande Gbola (Ph.D) Ffs.Post Harvest Fisheries Specialist Department of Fish Technology and Product Development Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research

 

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Fish smoking

Fish smoking &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-16 07:09:03 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

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The advantages of smoking fish are manifold. Fish smoking prolongs shelf life, enhances flavor and increases utilization in soups and sauces. It reduces waste at times of bumper catches and permits storage for the lean season. It increases protein availability to people throughout the year and makes fish easier to pack, transport and market.

PRODUCTION PROCESS

The art of fish smoking, said to be as old as civilization, combines three main processes:

Cooking &-8211; since the smoking is done at temperatures above 80°C, the flesh of the fish is cooked, the heat destroys bacteria resting on and inside the fish and enzymes in the guts and flesh are de-activated;

Drying &-8211; the fire which produces the smoke also generates heat, which dries the fish;

Smoking &-8211; the smoke is produced by burning wood containing a number of compounds, some of which kill bacteria; the process has a preservative value.

The smoking process can take the form of wet hot smoking or dry hot smoking. Both processes are carried out at temperatures high enough to cook the fish. Wet hot smoking usually takes about 1-2 hours and yields a moist, versatile product with about 40-55 percent moisture content but a limited shelf life of 1-3 days. Dry hot smoking, which is usually preceded by the former process, takes about 10- 18 hours, sometimes days; yielding fish with 10-15 percent moisture content, sometimes even below 10 percent. Fish smoked by this process have a shelf life of 6-9 months when stored properly.

Smoke drying is by far the commonest method, since the distribution process of the smoked fish may take a long time and producers often want to store it for months while waiting for a more favorable market.

The basic steps involved in fish smoking are:

Cleaning: The fishes are bled, gutted and gilled to remove the agent of deterioration using knife.

Brining: The cleaned fish are soaked in salt solution (30%)

Smoking: The fishes are smoked traditionally using either cylindrical drums, oven kilns

Courtesy: http://farm2.staticflickr.com

There are several problems associated with the traditional processing methods which predispose the artisanal catch to large scale post-harvest losses estimated at over 20% of the total landed weight.

• Poor quality product due to fish being damaged by difficult handling of the fish on wire nets used to support them over the fire

• Loss of smoke and heat, resulting in uneven smoking

• Limited capacity of smoking larger volumes of fish

• Time consuming in terms of amount of time needed to handle the fish in smoking.

• Constant attention to intensity of the flame and rotation of trays in order to achieve even drying of fish.

 

SMOKING KILN

Smoking kiln developed by Federal Institutes Of Industrial Research Oshodi, (FIIRO)

Some of the irregularities associated with the local method of smoking has been taken care of with the development of a smoking kiln designed and fabricated in 2001 by Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIMOR) click here to see

It consists of a heating chamber which is filled with charcoal and charged by fire. The cleaned or treated fish is loaded into trays and fed into the kiln. Drying is considered adequate when the moisture content has reduced to about 25%.

Packaging: The smoked fish is packaged neatly in transparent cellophane nylon ready for sales.                                       

Economic importance of smoked fish

The quantity of smoked fish from West Africa entering the United Kingdom is estimated to be in the region of 500 tonnes per year with a retail value of £5.8 to £9.35 million (Ward, 2003)[i]. Nigeria currently exports approximately 5 tonnes of smoked fish per month &-8211; 60 tonnes per annum[ii]. Combining this with the local demand of the product; clearly shows the economic potential of investment is guaranteed.

 

 

REFERENCES 


[i] Ward, A. A study of the trade in smoked-dried fish from West Africa to the United Kingdom. FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 981. Rome, FAO. 2003. 17p.

 

[ii] Ward, A. A study of the trade in smoked-dried fish from West Africa to the United Kingdom. FAO Fisheries Circular. No. 981. Rome, FAO. 2003. 17p.

 

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FISH PRESERVATION

FISH PRESERVATION &-8211; this Article or News was published on this date:2019-05-16 07:08:59 kindly share it with friends if you find it helpful

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Fish as a rule has very short life span once outside its natural habitat which makes finding an effective method of preservation after harvesting a very important  factor in pursuing a fish farming venture. The following are some methods of preservation.

 

FREEZING

Freezing can keep products in near perfect condition for very prolonged periods. Freezing is essential for export purposes. Freezing becomes extremely effective, if it is combined with cold storage (Anthonio, 1970)[i]. Fish that have to be preserved by freezing should be cleaned and packed for easy operation and maximum use of freezing space.

When fish is intended to be stored for a long period, quick freezing is preferred which inhibits bacterial action. During quick freezing every part of the product comes within the range of 0o to -5oC. Properly frozen fish at -20oC retains its physical properties and nutritive values for a year or more and is almost as good as fresh fish[ii]. This can be achieved using a blast freezer

 

DRYING

Drying involves dehydration i.e. the removal of moisture contents of fish, so that the bacterial decomposition or enzymic autolysis does not occur. When moisture contents reduce upto 10%, the fishes are not spoiled provided they are stored in dry conditions. Fish drying is achieved either naturally by sun drying or drying it mechanically.

 

SALTING

Salting is a process of preserving fish with the use of common salt (sodium chloride), as a preservative. Which penetrates the tissues, thus checks the bacterial growth and reduce the process of spoilage. Salting commences as soon as the fish surface of the fish comes in contact with common salt and the end product shall have the required salinity with taste and odour. Some of the factors involved in salting of fish which play an important role are purity of salt, quantify of salt used and weather conditions like temperature, etc.

During the process the small fishes are directly salted without being cleaned. In the medium and large sized fish; the fish are gutted, washed and filled with salt for uniform penetration through flesh. Large fishes like sharks are cut into convenient sized pieces. Generally, salting is used for temporary preservation of fish. The salt used should be pure common salt so as to keep the quality of the fresh fish. Similarly, fish could be soaked in a solution of water and salt (brine), a process known as Brining. Brining is not used as such as a preservation method but as preparation for smoking or drying.

 

 

References 


[i] Anthonio, G.B.O., 1970. Fish marketing survey in the Kainji Lake Basin Yelwa area study. Ibadan, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, May.

 

[ii] Culled from: Lecture note on processing and fish preservation by NPTEL India

 

Disclaimer

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. webforums.club makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, correntness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis.